کارآفرینی زوجی در ایران: چه عوامل محیط درونی موجب موفقیت زوج‌های کارآفرین می‌شوند؟

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی- کیفی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشکده کارآفرینی دانشگاه تهران

2 دانش آموخته دانشکده کارآفرینی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

کسب‌وکارهای زوجی، نوع خاصی از کسب‌وکارهای خانوادگی هستند که علیرغم نقش مؤثری که در دهه‌های اخیر در اقتصاد کشورها داشته اند، مطالعات محدودی درباره آن‌ها انجام‌شده است. در این راستا، شناسایی عوامل مؤثر بر موفقیت زوج‌های کارآفرین می‌تواند راه‌حل‌های مفید و مؤثری در بهبود و توسعه این نوع کارآفرینی ارائه دهد. لذا این پژوهش با هدف شناسایی عوامل محیط درونی مؤثر بر موفقیت زوج‌های کارآفرین در یک تحقیق کاربردی با استفاده از روش تحقیق کیفی روایتی انجام‌ شده است. نمونه‌های مورد مطالعه از میان زوج‌های کارآفرین موفقی انتخاب شدند که کسب‌وکار زوجی خدماتی کوچک و نوپایی را در شهر تهران ایجاد کرده‌اند. تحلیل مضمون روایت‌های چهارده مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته انجام‌شده با زنان در این کسب‌وکارهای زوجی به شناسایی سه تم اصلی "تعاملات زوجین" شامل چهار تم فرعی روابط عاطفی زوجین، ارتباطات شفاف، احترام و اعتماد متقابل و توانایی برقراری تعامل؛ "مدیریت و برنامه ریزی" با سه تم فرعی روابط کاری، تعادل کار و خانواده و رهبری مشارکتی و در نهایت "منابع" با دو تم فرعی منابع مالی و منابع غیرمالی انجامید. این یافته ها به سیاست گذاران و برنامه ریزان توسعه کارآفرینی کمک می کند اقدامات حمایتی مناسبی برای توسعه کارآفرینی زوجی در کشور طراحی و پیاده سازی کنند. در پایان نیز پیشنهادهایی جهت انجام پژوهش‌های آتی ارائه‌شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Copreneurship in Iran: what internal factors lead to the success of copreneurs?

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Arasti 1
  • Laleh Sadeghi 2
  • Maryam Saeedian 2
  • Narges Imanipour 1
1 university of Tehran
2 university of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Copreneurship is one of the species of family businesses which despite their expansion in recent decades, there are few studies about them. In this regard, identifying the factors affecting the success of copreneurs can provide useful and effective solutions in improving and developing this type of entrepreneurship. Therefore, the present study has used the qualitative research method (narrative study) to identify the internal environmental factors affecting the success of copreneurs. Sample consisted of successful copreneurs in new small service businesses in Tehran. Thematic analysis of fourteen semi-structured interviews with women in these businesses led to the identification of three main themes: “interaction between couples” with three subthemes “emotional relationships”, “transparent communication”, “mutual respect and trust”, and the “ability to interact”; “management and planning” with three subthemes “work relationships”, “work-family balance”, and “co-leadership”; and finally “resources” with two subthemes “financial resources” and “non-financial resources”. These findings help policy makers to initiate suitable supportive programs for development of copreneurship in the country. Finally, suggestions for future research are presented.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • copreneurship
  • copreneur
  • Success
  • internal factors
ایراندوست، ع؛ قوامی پور، م؛ ابراهیم نژاد، ر؛ حسین پور، د (1392). "عوامل کلیدی اثرگذار بر موفقیت کسب‌وکارهای خانوادگی اولویت‌بندی با روش تحلیل شبکه‌ای"، توسعه کارآفرینی، 6(2)، 74-55.
مرکز آمار ایران (1399)، گزارش بررسی نتایج طرح آمارگیری نیروی کار، https://www.amar.org.ir/english
Aladejebi, O. (2020). Copreneurs: The Impact of Spousal Relationships on Business success In Nigeria. Archives of Business Research, 8(2), 65-78.
Amubode, A. A., Rauf-Lawal, H. M., & Owodiong-Idemeko, B. M. (2016), ‘Attitude of couples and marriageable singles in establishing joint fashion business’ Journal of Management and Sustainability, 6(1), 192-205.
Barnett, F. & Barnett, S. (1988). Working together: Entrepreneurial couples, Berkeley, Calif: Ten Speed Press.
Barnett, T., Eddleston, K., & Kellermanns, F. W. (2009). The effects of family versus career role salience on the performance of family and nonfamily firms. Family Business Review, 22(1), 39–52
Bosma, N. Kelly, D. (2018). Global entrepreneurship monitor report, GEM Global Report 2017-2018.
Brannon, D. L., Wiklund, J., & Haynie, J. M. (2013). The varying effects of family relationships in entrepreneurial teams. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 37(1), 107-132.
Braun, V. and Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2). 77-101.
Danes, S. M., & Morgan, E. A. (2004). Family business-owning couples: An EFT view into their unique conflict culture. Contemporary family therapy, 26(3), 241-260.
Distelberg, B., & Sorenson, R. L. (2009). Updating Systems Concepts in Family Businesses. Family Business Review, 22(1), 65–81.
Eisele, P. (2011). Copreneurial sustainability: optimizing structures in small and medium US enterprises. RMIT University.
El Shoubaki, A., Block, J. & Lasch, F. (2021). The couple business as a unique form of business: a review of the empirical evidence, Management Review Quarterly. 1-33, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11301-020-00206-5.
Eybers, C., Farrington, S., Venter, E., & Boshoff, C. (2010). The influence of selected demographic variables on the success of copreneurships. In Southern Africa Institute for Management Scientist (SAIMS) Conference (pp. 1-26).
Farrington, S. M., Venter, E., Eybers, C., & Boshoff, C. (2011). Structuring effective copreneurial teams. South African Journal of Business Management, 42(3), 1-16.
Farrington, S., Venter, E., Eybers, C., & Boshoff, C. (2010). Task-based factors influencing the successful functioning of copreneurial businesses in South Africa. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, 14(1), 24–46.
Farrington, S.M. (2009). Sibling Partnerships in South African small and medium-sized family businesses. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth.
Franco, M., & Piceti, P. (2018). Family dynamics and gender perspective influencing copreneurship practices. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 26(1), 14-33.
Gross, B.L. and Gross, M.J. )2007(. Sleeping with your business partner: A communication toolkit for couples in business together. Herndon: Capital Books.
Helmle, J. R. (2010). Copreneurs and communication: Work-family balance in married couples’ family businesses. University of California, Santa Barbara.
Helmle, J. R., Seibold, D. R., & Afifi, T. D. (2011), ‘Work and Family in Copreneurial Family Businesses Extending and Integrating Communication Research’, Annals of the International Communication Association, 35(1), 51-91.
Helmle, R.J., C. Botero, I., & R. Seibold, D. (2014), ‘Factors that influence perceptions of work-life balance in owners of copreneurial firms’, Journal of Family Business Management, 4(2), 110-132.
Kuschel, K., & Lepeley, M. T. (2016). Copreneurial women in start-ups. Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, 29(2), 1-19.
Lien, Y. C., Teng, C. C., & Li, S. (2016), ‘Institutional reforms and the effects of family control on corporate governance,’ Family Business Review, 29(2), 174-188
López, M. C. P., Miranda, M. E. G., Argente-Linares, E., & López-Sánchez, L. (2018), ‘The internationalisation of Spanish family firms through business groups: Factors affecting the profitability, and the moderating effect of the family nature of the Spanish business’ , Revista de Contabilidad-Spanish Accounting Review, 21(1), 82-90.
Machek, O., & Hnilica, J. (2015). Copreneurship and its Impact on Financial Characteristics of Companies 1. Ekonomicky casopis, 63(2), 152.
McDonald T.M., Marshall M.I., Delgado M.S. (2017). Is working with your spouse good for business? The effect of working with your spouse on profit for rural businesses, Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 38(4), 477-493.
Othman, N., Mohamed, S., & Suradi, S. (2016). Motivating factors of couple involvement in copreneurship businesses in Malaysia, International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, 10(1), 256-259.
Oudah, M., Jabeen, F., & Dixon, C. (2018). Determinants linked to family business sustainability in the UAE: An AHP approach, Sustainability, 10(1), 1-23.
Peregrino-Dartey, E. (2018). ‘Copreneurs' Coping Strategies for Work-Family Conflict’, Ph.D. thesis at Walden University.
Tompson, GH & Tompson, HB )2000.( 'Determinants of successful copreneurship', Proceedings of the 2000 ICSB World Conference, Brisbane, Australia.
Venter, E., Farrington, S. M., & Boshoff, C. (2012). Relational-based factors influencing successful copreneurships. Management Dynamics, 21(4), 1-30.
Wu, M., Chang, C.-C., & Zhuang, W.-L. (2010). Relationships of work–family conflict with business and marriage outcomes in Taiwanese copreneurial women. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(5), 742–753