اثر روش‏های انتقال تکنولوژی بر اشتغال: مطالعه سیستماتیک

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی - کمی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مدیریت و کارآفرینی، دانشکده علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 گروه اقتصاد، دانشکده علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

چکیده

روش‏های مختلف انتقال تکنولوژی علاوه بر آن که در کاهش شکاف تکنولوژی مؤثرند تبعات دیگر اقتصادی به همراه دارند که عدم توجه به این آثار می‏تواند به مشکلات و چالش‏های اقتصادی کشورها بیافزاید. از جمله؛ اثر این روش‏ها بر اشتغال و تأثیر آن بر نیروی کار ماهر و ساده است. این مقاله برحسب هدف کاربردی و برحسب گردآوری اطلاعات اسنادی - مرور سیستماتیک مقالات علمی پژوهشی منتشر شده در زمینه اثر روش‏های انتقال تکنولوژی بر اشتغال؛ با آزمون علامت و به کمک نرم افزار SPSS26، اثر ‏ده روش منتخب انتقال تکنولوژی را بر اشتغال مورد بررسی قرار داده است. به این منظور سه پایگاه اطلاعاتی از مقالات علمی و پژوهشی فارسی و هشت پایگاه انگلیسی زبان با کلیدواژه‏های مرتبط به اشتغال جستجو شده است. در سطح 1%؛ از میان روش‏های مورد بررسی، اتحاد و سرمایه‏گذاری مشترک بر اشتغال بی اثر و اثر روش‏های ادغام و اکتساب، سرمایه‏گذاری مستقیم خارجی، فرانشیز، مجوز فعالیت، شرکت‏های چند ملیتی، تحقیق و توسعه و شرکت‏های زایشی بر اشتغال مثبت شناسایی شد. در مرحلۀ دوم؛ با استفاده از روش تاپسیس، روش‏های انتقال تکنولوژی بر مبنای معیار اثر بر اشتغال نیروی کار ماهر و ساده رتبه‏بندی شدند. بر این اساس روش فرانشیز مناسب‏ترین روش برای ایجاد اشتغال در نیروی کار ساده و روش‏های تحقیق و توسعه، سرمایه‏گذاری مستقیم خارجی و شرکت‏های زایشی مناسب‏ترین روش برای ایجاد اشتغال در نیروی کار ماهر شناسایی شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Employment Effect of Technology Transfer Methods: A Systematic Review

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farzaneh Noori 1
  • Sohrab Delangizan 2
  • Bijan Rezaee 1
1 Entrepreneurship & management department, Social sciences faculty, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Economics Department,, Social sciences faculty, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

Different technology transfer methods, in addition to being effective in reducing the technology gap, have other economic consequences. Not paying attention to these effects can add to the economic problems and challenges of countries. Among these effects, employment effect is important especially the effect on skilled and unskilled labor force. In this paper using a systematic review of published scientific research papers on the effect of technology transfer methods on employment; by Sign test and SPSS26 software, the effect of ten selected technology transfer methods has been investigated. At 1% level; among the studied methods, Alliances and Joint ventures were found to be ineffective on employment, the effect of Mergers and Acquisitions, Foreign direct investment, Franchises, Licenses, Multinational corporations, R&D and Spinoffs were significantly positive. In the second stage; Using TOPSIS method, technology transfer methods were ranked based on the effect on skilled and simple labor force. Accordingly, the franchise method was identified as the most appropriate method for employment in the simple labor force and R&D, foreign direct investment and spinoffs were identified as the most appropriate method for employment in the skilled labor force.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • employment
  • Simple labor force
  • skilled labor force
  • Technology transfer methods
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