تاثیرکیفیت نهادی و محیط اقتصادی بر نرخ کارآفرینی: شواهدی از داده های پانل

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی - کمی

نویسندگان

گروه علوم اداری و اقتصادی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه گنبدکاووس، گنبدکاووس، ایران

چکیده

از جمله عوامل مؤثر بر سطح فعالیت­های کارآفرینانه، عملکرد محیط اقتصاد کلان و بهبود کیفیت نهادی است. هدف این مطالعه بررسی رابطه بین کیفیت نهادی، محیط اقتصاد کلان و فعالیت­های کارآفرینی در کشورهای منتخب درحال توسعه و توسعه­یافته، در دوره زمانی 2018-2010 است. برای سنجش سطح فعالیت کارآفرینی از سه شاخص نرخ فعالیت کارآفرینی نوپا، نرخ کارآفرینی نوظهور، و نرخ کارآفرینی جدید و برای سنجش کیفیت نهادها از شاخص رقابت­پذیری، آزادی اقتصادی و کیفیت حکمرانی استفاده شده است. روش پژوهش برحسب هدف، کاربردی و برحسب گردآوری اطلاعات، توصیفی-همبستگی است. داده‎های پژوهش از دیده­بان جهانی کارآفرینی (GEM) و نماگرهای توسعه جهانی (WDI)، استخراج و از طریق رویکرد تخمین­زننده گشتاورهای تعمیم­یافته (GMM) با استفاده از نرم­افزار STATA 14 تحلیل شد. نتایج نشان می­دهد که تأثیر شاخص­های در نظرگرفته شده (رشد تولید سرانه، بیکاری، تورم، نرخ مالیات، سرمایه­گذاری مستقیم خارجی، دسترسی به تامین مالی، رقابت­پذیری، شاخص آزادی اقتصادی و شاخص حکمرانی) برحسب نوع فعالیت کارآفرینی و میزان توسعه­یافتگی کشورها متفاوت است. نتایج همچنین نشان داد که آزادی اقتصادی بیشتر با همه انواع کارآفرینی در کشورهای توسعه­یافته ارتباط مثبتی دارد. علاوه­براین،کیفیت حکمرانی و رقابت­پذیری اقتصادی کشورها ارتباط معکوسی با فعالیت کارآفرینی در کشورهای توسعه­یافته و ارتباط مثبت با کشورهای درحال توسعه است. یافته­های مطالعه حاضر، می­تواند مورد توجه سیاست­گذاران در توسعه سیاست­های مؤثر بر افزایش فعالیت کارآفرینی در کشورهای مختلف باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Impact of Institutional Quality and Economic Environment on Entrepreneurship Rate: Evidence from panel data

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Mohammadi Khyareh
  • Amineh Zivari
Department of Administrative and Economic Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Gonbad-e-Kavous University, Gonbad-e-Kavous, Iran
چکیده [English]

Factors affecting the level of entrepreneurship include the proper functioning of the macroeconomic environment and the improvement of institutional quality. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between institutional quality, the macroeconomic environment and entrepreneurial activities in selected developing and developed countries in the period 2018-2010. To measure the level of entrepreneurial activity, three indicators were used for the total early stage entrepreneurship rate, the rate of emerging entrepreneurship and the rate of new entrepreneurship, and to measure the quality of institutions, competitiveness, economic freedom and the quality index for corporate governance. The research method is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive correlation in terms of data collection. Research data was extracted from the Global Entrepreneurship Observatory (GEM) and the World Development Indicators (WDI) and analyzed using the Generalized Torque (GMM) estimate using the STATA 14 software. The results show that the impact of the intended indicators (per capita output growth, unemployment, inflation, tax rate, and foreign direct investment, access to finance, competitiveness, index of economic freedom and governance index) depends on the type of business and the level of Development of the countries. The results also showed that economic freedom is more positively associated with all types of entrepreneurship in industrialized countries. In addition, the quality of governance and the economic competitiveness of countries are inversely related to entrepreneurship in industrialized countries and positive relationships with developing countries.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Competitiveness
  • Economic freedom
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Governance Quality
  • Institutional Quality
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