عنوان مقاله [English]
The entrepreneurial team is the prevailing form of business foundation in the IT industry. Therefore, much of the attention drawn by the entrepreneurial team in the IT context. Despite positive performance impact of the structure of the entrepreneurial team found in the traditional context, there was little reconciliation among studies in the IT context. Data gathered using a made questionnaire randomly, from a sample of 98 founders in IT firms founded by an entrepreneurial team in Tehran. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) used to analyze data. Cronbach’s alpha for all constructs was over 0.7 and Average Variance Extracted (AVE) for them was well above the threshold of 0.5, providing support for both the reliability and validity of data gathering tool. This study revealed that the lack of explanations on the mechanism by which the structure of the entrepreneurial team affects performance was the source of contradictions. Our results show that the size and the diversity of the entrepreneurial team, affected by the level of environmental dynamism, affect the level of access to resources via the creation of the entrepreneurial network and leads to superior performance results.
سرمد، ز؛ بازرگان، ع و حجازی، ا (1387). روشهای تحقیق در علوم رفتاری. تهران: نشر آگاه.
سلیمانی، م؛ حسینقلیزاده، ر و خوراکیان، ع (1395). عوامل سوق دهنده و بازدارنده راهاندازی شرکتهای مستقر در مرکز رشد علوم انسانی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، 9(1): 79-97.
غفوری، س.م.ح ؛ الیاسی، م؛ امیری، م و سیدنقوی، م.ع (1387). شناسایی ابعاد رهبری سازمانی شرکتهای دانشبنیانِ ایرانی در گذار موفق به مرحله رشد سریع- مطالعه چند موردی. توسعه کارآفرینی، 11(4): 701-718.
Almer-Jarz, D. A., Schwarz, E. J., & Breitenecker, R. J. (Eds.). (2008). New venture teams: the relationship between initial team characteristics, team processes and performance: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Bin Ahmad, S., & Mushraf, A. M. (2011). The Relationship between Intellectual capital and Business Performance: An empirical study in Iraqi industry. Paper presented at the 2011 International Conference on Management and Artificial Intelligence Bali, Indonesia.
Bjørnåli, E. (2009). Board of Directors, Top Management Team and the Development of Academic Spin-Off Companies. ( PhD), Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
Bjørnåli, E. S., Erikson, T., & Knockaert, M. (2011). The impact of top management team characteristics and board strategic involvement on team effectiveness in high-tech start-ups. Paper presented at the 1st Annual meeting of the Academy of Management (annual meeting; AOM 2011).
Cachon, J.-C. (1990). Entrepreneurial teams: a categorization and their long-term evolution. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 7(4), 3-12.
Chaganti, R. R. S., Watts, A. D., Chaganti, R., & Zimmerman-Treichel, M. (2008). Ethnic-immigrants in founding teams: Effects on prospector strategy and performance in new Internet ventures. Journal of Business Venturing, 23(1), 113-139.
Chantarat, S., & Barrett, C. B. (2012). Social network capital, economic mobility and poverty traps. The Journal of Economic Inequality, 10(3), 299-342.
Chowdhury, S. J. J. o. B. V. (2005). Demographic diversity for building an effective entrepreneurial team: is it important? , 20(6), 727-746.
Claire, L. (2016). Teammate Selection: Using Research to Build Teams with Healthy Diversity. Paper presented at the United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship. Conference Proceedings.
Clarysse, B., & Moray, N. (2004). A process study of entrepreneurial team formation: the case of a research-based spin-off. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(1), 55-79.
Cole, A. H. (1959). Business enterprise in its social setting: Harvard University Press.
Collewaert, V. (2012). Angel investors' and entrepreneurs' intentions to exit their ventures: A conflict perspective. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 36(4), 753-779.
Cooney, T. (2005). What is an entrepreneurial team? International Small Business Journal, 23(3), 226-235.
Daniel, W. (1999). Biostatistics: a foundation for analysis in the health sciences. Wiley series in probability and mathematical statistics. Applied probability and statistics. In: Wiley New York.
Darling, J. R., Keefe, M. J., & Nicols, K. E. (2006). Successful Entrepreneurial Team-Building: A New Paradigm of Development Skills. Journal of Business & Society, 19(2),143-159.
Dautzenberg, K. (2012). Gender differences of business owners in technology-based firms. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 4(1), 79-98.
Dautzenberg, K., & Reger, G. (2009). Entrepreneurial team characteristics and success of new technology-based firms in Germany. 4(1), 71-94.
Delmar, F., & Shane, S. (2003). Does business planning facilitate the development of new ventures? , 24(12), 1165-1185.
Devine, D. J. (2002). A review and integration of classification systems relevant to teams in organizations. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 6(4), 291.
Doutriaux, J. (1992). Emerging high-tech firms: how durable are their comparative start-up advantages? Journal of Business Venturing, 7(4), 303-322.
Drakopoulou, D., Sarah, & Anderson, A. R. (2007). Mumpsimus and the mything of the individualistic entrepreneur. International Small Business Journal, 25(4), 341-360.
Egea, K. (2006). Relationship Building in Virtual Teams: an academic case study. Paper presented at the Proceedings of The 2006 Informing Science and IT Education Joint Conference, Salford, 2006, UK.
Eisenhardt, K. M., & Schoonhoven, C. B. (1990). Organizational growth: Linking founding team, strategy, environment, and growth among US semiconductor ventures, 1978-1988. Administrative science quarterly, 35(3), 504-529.
Ensley, M. D., Carland, J. W., & Carland, J. C. (1998). The effect of entrepreneurial team skill heterogeneity and functional diversity on new venture performance. Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship, 10(1), 1-14.
Ensley, M.D., Carland, J.C., Carland, J.W., Banks, M., 1999. Exploring the existence of entrepreneurial teams. International Journal of Management, 16 (2), 276–286.
Ensley, M.D., Carland, J.W., Carland, J.C., 2000. Investigating the existence of the lead entrepreneur. Journal of Small Business Management 38 (4),59–77.
Fletcher, D., Melin, L., & Gimeno, A. (2012). Culture and values in family business—A review and suggestions for future research. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 3(3), 127-131.
Forbes, D. P., Borchert, P.S., Zellmer‐Bruhn, M.E., & Sapienza, H.J. (2006). Entrepreneurial team formation: An exploration of new member addition. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(2), 225-248.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 39-50.
Galkina, T. (2013). Entrepreneurial networking: intended and unintended processes. (Ph.D), Hanken, Helsinki, Sweden. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10138/39351.
Gao, J., & Zhang, P. (2012). Understanding Entrepreneurial Teams and Governance Effects on Growth Strategy Adopted by Privately-Owned Chinese Startups. Business Management and Strategy, 3(2), 54-75.
Haleblian, J., & Finkelstein, S. (1993). Top management team size, CEO dominance, and firm performance: The moderating roles of environmental turbulence and discretion. Academy of management journal, 36(4), 844-863.
Huggins, R. (2010). Network resources and knowledge alliances: Sociological perspectives on inter-firm networks as innovation facilitators. International Journal of Sociology Social Policy, 30(9/10), 515-531.
Jin, L., Madison, K., Kraiczy, N. D., Kellermanns, F. W., Crook, T. R., Xi, J. J. E. T., & Practice. (2017). Entrepreneurial Team Composition Characteristics and New Venture Performance: A Meta‐Analysis. 41(5), 743-771.
Kakarika, M. J. J. o. B. S. (2013). Staffing an entrepreneurial team: diversity breeds success. 34(4), 31-38.
Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. P. (2007). Using the balanced scorecard as a strategic management system. Harvard business review, 85(7-8), 150-161.
Karin, A., Hannesdottir, K., Jaeger, J., Annas, P., Segerdahl, M., Karlsson, P., . . . Miller, F. (2014). Psychometric evaluation of ADAS‐C og and NTB for measuring drug response. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 129(2), 114-122.
Kleemann, M. (2011). Insight s in Entrepreneur ship Education Integrating Innovative Teaching Practices. (Master), Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
Kock, S., & Galkina, T. (2008). Entrepreneurial network creation: Using formal and informal relations of entrepreneurial team members in Russia and Finland. Perspectives on marketing, 10, 267-294.
Kropp, F., & Zolin, R. (2005). Technological entrepreneurship and small business innovation research programs. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 7(1), 1-16.
Lechler, T. (2001). Social interaction: A determinant of entrepreneurial team venture success. Small Business Economics, 16(4), 263-278.
Levie, J., & de Borst, J. P. (2017). How owner-manager team size influences the potential economic contribution of owner-managed businesses. Research Handbook on Entrepreneurial Teams: Theory & Practice. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK, 144-163.
Levie, J., Hart, M., & Gaklis, S. (2015). The more the merrier: how owner-manager team size influences the economic contribution of owner-managed businesses across the world (summary). Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, 35(8), 209-231.
Liu, C., & Huang, Y(2015) An empirical investigation of computer simulation technology acceptance to explore the factors that affect user intention. 14(3), 449-457.
Mazra, M. (2017). Entrepreneurial Team Diversity And New Venture Performance In Cameroon: The Moderating Effect Of Conflicts. International Journal of Innovation Management (ijim), 21(04), 1-22.
Merz, C., Schroeter, A., & Witt, P. (2010). Starting a New Company—Which Types of Personal Experience Help? Journal of enterprising culture, 18(03), 291-313.
Miller, D., & Dröge, C. (1986). Psychological and traditional determinants of structure. Administrative science quarterly, 31(4), 539-560.
Penrose, E. T. (2009). The Theory of the Growth of the Firm: Oxford university press.
Porter, M. E. (1990). The Competitive Advantage of Nations, by published by The Free Press, a Division of Simon & Schuster. New York: Division of Simon & Schuster Inc.
Prajapati, K., & Biswas, S. (2011). Effect of entrepreneur network and entrepreneur self-efficacy on subjective performance: a study of handicraft and handloom cluster. 20(2), 227-247.
Ramasubbu, N., Mithas, S., Krishnan, M. S., & Kemerer, C. F. (2008). Work dispersion, process-based learning, and offshore software development performance. MIS quarterly,32(2) 437-458.
Reynolds, P. D. (1993). High performance entrepreneurship: what makes it different. Paper presented at the 13 th Babson Entrepreneurship Research Conference. March.
Santos, S., Morris, M., Caetano, A., & Costa, S. (2016). Team Entrepreneurial Potential: Construct Definition and Multilevel Interactions. Paper presented at the United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship. Conference Proceedings.
Saud, K., Mohammad, Breitenecker, R., & Schwarz, E. (2014). Entrepreneurial team locus of control: Diversity and trust. Management Decision, 52(6), 1057-1081.
Schenkel, M. T., & Garrison, G. (2009). Exploring the roles of social capital and team-efficacy in virtual entrepreneurial team performance. Management Research News, 32(6), 525-538.
Schjoedt, L., & Kraus, S. J. M. R. N. (2009). Entrepreneurial teams: definition and performance factors. 32(6), 513-524.
Şener, İ. (2012). Strategic responses of top managers to environmental uncertainty. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 58, 169-177.
Shrader, R &Siegel, D. S. (2007). Assessing the relationship between human capital and firm performance: evidence from technology‐based new ventures. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(6), 893-908.
Smith, B. R. (2007). Entrepreneurial team formation: The effects of technological intensity and decision making on organizational emergence. University of Cincinnati.
Smith, T. M., & Reece, J. S. (1999). The relationship of strategy, fit, productivity, and business performance in a services setting. Journal of Operations Management, 17(2), 145-161.
Supachaturat, S.-a., Pichyangkura, R., Chandrachai, A., & Pentrakoon, D. (2015). A Turning Point to Successful Entrepreneurship in Case Thai Functional Food Company. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 5(9), 804-807.
Tiwana, A., & McLean, E. R.. (2003). The tightrope to e-business project success. Communications of the ACM, 46(12), 345-350.
Timmons, J.A., 1994. New Venture Creation: Entrepreneurship for the 21st Century. Irwin, Chicago, IL.
Tuten, D., & Ascigil, S. F.(2010) Differences between Turkish Entrepreneurial Teams with or Without Start-Up Experience. Paper presented at the ICSB World Conference Proceedings.
Vancea, M., & Boso, Á. (2015). Migrant women and labour integration in Catalonia: The impact of new information and communication technologies. Revista de Estudios Sociales(53), 138-149.
Vieira, A. L. (2011). Interactive LISREL in practice. Verlag Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.
Vogel, R., Puhan, T. X., Shehu, E., Kliger, D., Beese, H.., & Organization. (2014). Funding decisions and entrepreneurial team diversity: A field study. 107, 595-613.
Wang, C.-H., Chang, C.-H., Shen, G., & Change, S. (2015). The effect of inbound open innovation on firm performance: Evidence from high-tech industry. 99(2015), 222-230.
Wang, T. (2006). Entrepreneurial teams’ social networks and new ventures’ knowledge exploration. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Administrative Science Association of Canada, Entrepreneurship and Family Business Division, Banff, Alberta.
Weijs-Perrée, M., Appel-Meulenbroek, R., de Vries, B., & Romme, G. (2016). Networking behavior and knowledge sharing in business centers. Paper presented at the European Conference on Knowledge Management.
Wiklund, J. (1999). The sustainability of the entrepreneurial orientation—performance relationship. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 24(1), 37-48.
Wilhelm, H., Schlömer, M., & Maurer, I. (2015). How dynamic capabilities affect the effectiveness and efficiency of operating routines under high and low levels of environmental dynamism. British Journal of Management, 26(2), 327-345.
Zhou, W., & Rosini, E. (2015). Entrepreneurial team diversity and performance: Toward an integrated model. 5(1), 31-60.
Zolin, Roxanne, Kautonen, Teemu, & Kuckertz, Andreas (2008) The devil you know? The potential downside of strong and weak ties for entrepreneurial team formation. In Gillin, Murray (Ed.) 5th AGSE International Entrepreneurship Research Exchange, 5 – 8 February 2008, Melbourne, Australia.