تحلیل ابعاد بنگاه‌های مادرزاد بین‌المللی (بمب) حوزۀ فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات (فاوا) در ایران

نوع مقاله: مقالات پژوهشی- کیفی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشکده اقتصاد، مدیریت و علوم اداری دانشگاه سمنان

2 استاد گروه کنترل دانشکده برق دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکترای تخصصی، دانشکده اقتصاد،مدیریت و علوم اداری دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران

چکیده

توسعۀ کسب‌وکارهای بین­المللی از جمله مهم‌ترین ابزارهای توسعۀ اقتصادی به‌شمار می­روند. در حالی‌که هر روز بر سهم بنگاه­های مادرزاد بین­المللی در بازارهای جهانی به‌ویژه حوزۀ فاوا افزوده می­شود، مفهوم جهانی زاده شدن در ایران فراگیر نشده است. در این پژوهش تلاش شده است تا ابعاد متمایزکنندۀ بنگاه­های مادرزاد بین­المللی حوزۀ فاوا در ایران تحلیل شود. پژوهش کاربردی بوده و راهبرد مطالعۀ موردی با روش کیفی تبیینی برای آن انتخاب شده است. داده­ها از طریق انجام 68 مصاحبۀ عمیق نیمه‌ساختار یافته، مشاهده و بررسی اسناد و مدارک از 6 شرکت ایرانی و 4 شرکت اروپایی و صاحب‌نظران حوزۀ فاوا در طول 26 ماه جمع‌آوری و از نرم‌افزار اطلس­تی و کدگذاری برای تحلیل آن استفاده شد. موارد مطالعه به‌روش نمونه‌گیری خوشه­ای تصادفی از میان شرکت­های حوزۀ فاوا انتخاب شده­اند. یافته­های تحقیق نشان داد «نهاد کارآفرین»، «بنگاه»، «دولت» و «اکوسیستم اقتصادی»، ابعاد متمایز در بنگاه­های مادرزاد بین­المللی هستند. در این میان نهاد کارآفرین برجسته‌ترین بُعد توفیق بنگاه برای بین‌المللی شدن است و برخلاف برخی پژوهش­ها حمایت­های دولتی نقش مخرّب بر ورود بنگاه به بازارهای بین ­المللی دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analyzing Dimensions of Born International (BI) Enterprises in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • davood feiz 1
  • Ali Akbar Jalali 2
  • azim zarei 1
  • ehsan souri 3
1 Associate Professor , Economic, Management and Administration Faculty of Semnan University
2 Professor , Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, Iran
3 Ph.D. Student , Economic, Management and Administration Faculty of Semnan University
چکیده [English]

International business development is one of the most important means of economic development. While international companies are expanding their market share in the global market, the concept of Born Global is not widespread in Iran yet. In this research, attempts have been made to analyze the distinguishing dimensions of globally-established ICT enterprises in Iran. The case study strategy and qualitative explanatory method have been selected for this applied research. Data was collected through 68 interviews, observation and review of documents from 6 Iranian and 4 European companies and many experts in the field of ICT during 26 months. In order to conduct research, cluster sampling has been used and the statistical population was ICT firms. The research findings showed that "Entrepreneur entity," "Firm," "State," and "Economic ecosystem" are the four most effective dimensions in creating BI. Meanwhile, the "Entrepreneur Entity" is the most important feature in the success of a firm in international affairs, and contrary to some researches, governmental supports has an unfavorable role in entering into international markets.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Born International
  • Entrepreneur Entity
  • Economic Ecosystem
  • ICT
آقاموسی طهرانی، مریم، سرداری، احمد و عبدالحسین کرم­پور (1395). شناسائی عوامل مؤثر بر صادرات کالاهای فناورمحور با رویکرد کارآفرینی و بازار محوری، توسعه کارآفرینی، 9 (1): 139-158.

سخدری، کمال، زارعی، بهروز و بهزاد صادقی (1396). تحلیل مدل رفتاری کسب وکارهای نوپا با استفاده از مدل توسعۀ مشتری (مطالعۀ موردی: کسب وکارهای نوپای مستقر در شتاب دهنده های شهر تهران)، توسعه کارآفرینی، 10(3): 395-415.

شاه آبادی، ابوالفضل و هانیه ثمری (1395). تأثیر نوآوری بر صادرات صنایع مبتنی بر فناوری برتر کشورهای منتخب در حال توسعه و توسعه یافته، تحقیقات اقتصادی، 51 (3): 611-633.

مرادی، محمدعلی، سخدری، کمال و شیما صنیعی (1396). تأثیر عوامل نهادی بر نرخ کارآفرینی بین المللی در کشورهای درحال توسعه، توسعه کارآفرینی، 10 (2): 339-358 .

Amorós, J. E., Etchebarne, M. S., Zapata, I. T., & Felzensztein, C. (2016). International entrepreneurial firms in Chile: An exploratory profile. Journal of Business Research, 69(6), 2052-2060.

Brock, J. K.-U., Johnson, J. E., & Zhou, J.Y. (2011). Does distance matter for internationally-oriented small firms? Industrial Marketing Management, 40(3), 384-394.

Cannone, G., & Ughetto, E. (2014). Born globals: A cross-country survey on high-tech start-ups. International Business Review, 23(1), 272-283.

Cerrato, D., Crosato, L., & Depperu, D. (2016). Archetypes of SME internationalization: A configurational approach. International Business Review, 25(1), 286-295.

Chetty, S., & Campbell-Hunt, C. (2004). A Strategic Approach to Internationalization: A Traditional Versus a “Born-Global” Approach. Journal of International Marketing, 12(1), 57-81.

Choquette, E., Rask, M., Sala, D., & Schröder, P. (2017). Born Globals-Is there fire behind the smoke? International Business Review, 26(3), 448-460.

Ciravegna, L., Majano, S. B., & Zhan, G. (2014). The inception of internationalization of small and medium enterprises: The role of activeness and networks. Journal of Business Research, 67(6), 1081-1089.

Dikova, D., Jaklič, A., Burger, A., & Kunčič, A. (2016). What is beneficial for first-time SME-exporters from a transition economy: A diversified or a focused export-strategy? Journal of World Business, 51(2), 185-199.

Dimitratos, P., Buck, T., Fletcher, M., & Li, N. (2016). The motivation of international entrepreneurship: The case of Chinese transnational entrepreneurs. International Business Review, 25(5), 1103-1113.

Dimitratos, P., Johnson, J. E., Plakoyiannaki, E., & Young, S. (2016). SME internationalization: How does the opportunity-based international entrepreneurial culture matter? International Business Review, 25(6), 1211-1222.

Eng, T.-Y., & Ozdemir, S. (2014). International R&D partnerships and intrafirm R&D–marketing–production integration of manufacturing firms in emerging economies. Industrial Marketing Management, 43(1), 32-44.

Felício, J. A., Duarte, M., & Rodrigues, R. (2016). Global mindset and SME internationalization: A fuzzy-set QCA approach. Journal of Business Research, 69(4), 1372-1378.

Gerschewski, S., Rose, E. L., & Lindsay, V. J. (2015). Understanding the drivers of international performance for born global firms: An integrated perspective. Journal of World Business, 50(3), 558-575.

Haverila, M. J. (2013). Marketing variables when launching high-technology products into international markets: An empirical study on Finnish technology firms. The Journal of High Technology Management Research, 24(1), 1-9.

Jiang, G., Kotabe, M., Hamilton, R. D., & Smith, S. W. (2016). Early internationalization and the role of immigration in new venture survival. International Business Review, 25(6), 1285-1296.

Johanson, J., & Vahlne, J.-E. (1977). The Internationalization Process of the Firm—A Model of Knowledge Development and Increasing Foreign Market Commitments. Journal of International Business Studies, 8(1), 23-32.

Johanson, J., & Vahlne, J.-E. (2009). The Uppsala internationalization process model revisited: From liability of foreignness to liability of outsidership. Journal of International Business Studies, 40(9), 1411-1431.

Jones, M. V., Coviello, N., & Tang, Y. K. (2011). International Entrepreneurship research (1989–2009): A domain ontology and thematic analysis. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(6), 632-659.

Keupp, M. M., & Gassmann, O. (2009). The Past and the Future of International Entrepreneurship: A Review and Suggestions for Developing the Field. Journal of Management, 35(3), 600-633.

Kiss, A. N., Danis, W. M., & Cavusgil, S. T. (2012). International entrepreneurship research in emerging economies: A critical review and research agenda. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(2),266-290.

Knight, G. A., & Cavusgil, S.T. (1996). The born global firm: a challenge to traditional internationalization theory. Greenwich, Conn.

Kuivalainen, O., Sundqvist, S., & Servais, P. (2007). Firms’ degree of born-globalness, international entrepreneurial orientation and export performance. Journal of World Business, 42(3), 253-267.

Lu, J. W., & Beamish, P.W. (2001). The internationalization and performance of SMEs. Strategic Management Journal, 22(6-7), 565-586.

Madsen, T. K., & Servais, P. (1997). The internationalization of Born Globals: An evolutionary process? International Business Review, 6(6), 561-583.  

Navarro-García, A. (2016). Drivers of export entrepreneurship. International Business Review, 25(1), 244-254.

Ojala, A. (2009). Internationalization of knowledge-intensive SMEs: The role of network relationships in the entry to a psychically distant market. International Business Review, 18(1), 50-59.

Oviatt, B. M., & McDougall-Covin, P. (1995). Global start-ups: Entrepreneurs on a worldwide stage. Academy of Management Perspectives, 9(2), 30-44.

Rhyne, L. C., & Teagarden, M.B. (1995). International technology-based competitive strategy: A literature review and integrative model. The Journal of High Technology Management Research, 6(2), 157-178.

Rialp-Criado, A., Galván-Sánchez, I., & Suárez-Ortega, S. M. (2010). A configuration-holistic approach to born-global firms’ strategy formation process. European Management Journal, 28(2), 108-123.

Shrader, R. C., Oviatt, B. M., & McDougall, P.P. (1997). Overcoming foreign market risks: the case of new ventures. Atlanta, Ga.: Georgia Tech Center for International Business Education and Research, School of Management, Georgia Institute of Technology.

Spence, M. M., Manning, L. M., & Crick, D. (2008). An investigation into the use of collaborative ventures in the internationalization of high performing Canadian SMEs. European Management Journal, 26(6), 412-428.

Tan, H., & Mathews, J. A. (2015). Accelerated internationalization and resource leverage strategizing: The case of Chinese wind turbine manufacturers. Journal of World Business, 50(3), 417-427.

Thite, M., Wilkinson, A., Budhwar, P., & Mathews, J. A. (2016). Internationalization of emerging Indian multinationals: Linkage, leverage and learning (LLL) perspective. International Business Review, 25(1), 435-443.

Torres-Ortega, R., Rialp-Criado, A., Rialp-Criado, J., & Stoian, M. C. (2015). How to measure born-global firms’ orientation towards international markets? Revista Española de Investigación de Marketing ESIC, 19(2), 107-123.

Wilkinson, T., & Brouthers, L. E. (2006). Trade promotion and SME export performance. International Business Review, 15(3), 233-252.

Wu, C.-W. (2011). Global marketing strategy modeling of high tech products. Journal of Business Research, 64(11), 1229-1233.

Wu, C.-W. (2016). Global entrepreneurship and innovation in management: Comparing MRA/SEM versus fuzzy-set QCA theory creation, data analysis, and findings. Journal of Business Research, 69(6), 2061-2066.

Wu, J., & Callahan, J. (2005). Motive, form and function of international R&D alliances: Evidence from the Chinese IT industry. The Journal of High Technology Management Research, 16(2), 173-191.

Wu, J., Wang, C., Hong, J., Piperopoulos, P., & Zhuo, S. (2016). Internationalization and innovation performance of emerging market enterprises: The role of host-country institutional development. Journal of World Business, 51(2), 251-263.

Yin, R. K. (2009). Case Study Research: Design and Methods (Vol. 5). Washington DC: SAGE Inc.

Zhang, X., Ma, X., Wang, Y., Li, X., & Huo, D. (2016). What drives the internationalization of Chinese SMEs? The joint effects of international entrepreneurship characteristics, network ties, and firm ownership. International Business Review, 25(2), 522-534.