بررسی آثار مستقیم، غیرمستقیم و تعدیلی محیط نهادی بر قصد کارآفرینانة دانشجویان کشاورزی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی - کمی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا

چکیده

قصد و رفتار کارآفرینانة افراد متأثر از محیط پیرامون آن‌هاست، اما در اکثر مطالعات کارآفرینی که مبتنی‌بر دیدگاه شناختی‌اند، از نقش عامل محیطی غفلت شده ‌است؛ بنابراین، در پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی آثار مستقیم، غیرمستقیم و تعدیلی محیط نهادی بر قصد کارآفرینانه، براساس نظریة اقتصاد نهادی نورث (1990) و نظریة رفتار برنامه‌ریزی‌شدة آجزن (1991)، یک الگوی شناختی قصد کارآفرینانه تدوین شد. در این پژوهش، که از نوع توصیفی- همبستگی است، داده‌های موردنیاز از طریق پرسشنامه از نمونه‌ای متشکل از 300 دانشجوی کشاورزی جمع‌آوری شد که در چهار دانشگاه دولتی در غرب کشور مشغول به تحصیل بودند. روایی محتوایی پرسشنامه را گروهی از خبرگان بررسی و تأیید کردند. روایی و پایایی سازه‌ها نیز از طریق برآورد مدل اندازه‌گیری شد و پس از اصلاحات لازم به‌دست آمد. نتایج مدل‌یابی معادلات ساختاری نشان داد که نگرش کارآفرینی و کنترل رفتار درک‌شده با قصد کارآفرینانه دارای رابطة مثبت و معنی‌داری است. همچنین، نتایج نشان داد محیط نهادی به‌طور غیرمستقیم و از طریق نگرش کارآفرینی و کنترل رفتار درک‌شده با قصد کارآفرینانه در ارتباط است. این یافته‌ها بیانگر آن است که سیاستگذاران و تصمیم‌گیرندگان باید بیش از پیش به ایجاد شرایط مناسب برای کارآفرینی در کشور توجه کرده و سعی کنند تا فشارها و موانع محیطی مقابل کارآفرینان بالقوه را برطرف کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Studying the direct, indirect and moderating effects of institutional environment on entrepreneurial intentions of agricultural students

نویسنده [English]

  • Saeid Karimi
Assistance professor, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Bu-Ali Sina University
چکیده [English]

Institutional environment influences entrepreneurial intention and behavior. However, cognitive models have not usually included this factor in their analyses. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to evaluate the direct, indirect and moderating effects of institutional environment on entrepreneurial intentions using the Theory of Planned Behavior. This is a descriptive survey research, which uses questionnaires for collecting data. The content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by a panel of experts. The construct validity and the reliability of the research instrument were assessed by estimating the measurement model. Data were collected from 300 agricultural students from four public universities in western Iran. Structural equation modelling showed attitudes toward entrepreneurship and perceived behavioral control significantly relate to entrepreneurial intentions. The perceptions of the institutional environment indirectly related to entrepreneurial intentions via attitudes and perceived behavioral control. These findings suggest that public policy makers and decision makers need to pay attention to creating favorable conditions for entrepreneurship in the country, and to removing the numerous institutional pressures and constraints faced by potential entrepreneurs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Entrepreneurship
  • Entrepreneurial intentions
  • Institutional environment
  • Agricultural Students
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