مدل‌سازی یکپارچه عوامل مؤثر بر شکست کارآفرینان و پیامدهای مالی، اجتماعی و روانی آن

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی - کمی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار/ دانشکده مهندسی پیشرفت/ دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران

2 عضو هیات علمی دانشکده کارآفرینی دانشگاه تهران

3 فارغ التحصیل کارشناسی ارشد مدیریت اجرائی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف  مدل‌سازی یکپارچه عوامل  مؤثر بر شکست و پیامدهای آن بر کارآفرینان صورت گرفته است. روش پژوهش برحسب هدف، کاربردی و برحسب گردآوری اطلاعات، توصیفی–همبستگی است.  همچنین براساس اطلاعات گردآوری شده از  استارت‌آپ‌های دانشگاهی مستقر در تهران، میزان تأثیر دلایل شکست و پیامدهای آن را می‌سنجد. از این‌رو، نظرات 257 نفر از کارآفرینان دانشگاهی که  به‌صورت تصادفی انتخاب شده‌اند، در قالب  پرسش‌نامه محقق‌ساخته گردآوری شد.  با استفاده از روش  مدل‌سازی معادلات ساختاری نیز، عمق  تأثیرگذاری هر یک از عوامل در شکست و پیامدهای آن استخراج  شد.  به‌طور خلاصه بر اساس نتایج  به‌دست آمده، ضعف در تیم استارت‌آپی  به‌عنوان مهم‌ترین عامل شکست کارآفرینی شناسایی شد، و پس از آن به ترتیب استراتژی‌های اشتباه، بازاریابی نادرست، دشواری صنعت، محصول ضعیف و عوامل مالی در رتبه‌های بعدی اهمیت قرار گرفتند. در میان پیامدهای شکست نیز بیشترین هزینه تحمیل شده بر کارآفرین، هزینه‌های روانی و سپس اجتماعی و مالی بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Integrated Modeling of Entrepreneurial Failure Antecedents and its Financial, Social and Psychological Consequences

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammadreaza Parsanejad 1
  • Razavi Seyyed Mostafa 2
  • Zeinab Foroutan 3
1 Assistant professor/ Faculty of Progress Engineering/ Iran University of Science and Technology
2 Faculty of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran
3 M.A. Executive Management, Iran University of Science and Technology
چکیده [English]

This study aimed at integrated modeling of effective factors on failure and its consequences on entrepreneurs. This is an applied research and it analyses the effects of failure and its consequences based on data collected from university-based startups in Tehran. Therefore, the responses of 257 randomly selected academic entrepreneurs were collected by questionnaire, and using structural equation modeling method, the effect of each factor in failure and its consequences is extracted. In short, based on the results, weaknesses in the team were identified as the most important factor in the failure of entrepreneurship and then the incorrect strategies, wrong marketing, industry difficulty, weakness in product and financial factors were followed. Among the consequences of failure, the highest imposed cost was mental and then social and financial costs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antecedents
  • Consequences
  • Entrepreneur
  • Objective Failure
  • Startup
آراستی، زهرا و غلامی، منیره (1389). علل شکست کارآفرینان در ایران، توسعه کارآفرینی، 3(2): 163-184.

الیاسی، قنبر و نوتاش، هادی (1390). شناسایی ریشه‌های شکست کارآفرینان کارکشته ایرانی: نگاهی روایتی-گفتمانی. توسعه کارآفرینی، 4(3): 31-50.

نوتاش، هادی (1392). ارائه  چارچوب یادگیری از شکست کارآفرینان کارکشته ایرانی با نگاه فرایندی. توسعه کارآفرینی، 6(4): 149-131.

هیر، جوزف؛ هالت، توماس؛ رینگل، کریستین و  سارستد، مارکو (1395).  مدل‌سازی معادلات ساختاری کمترین مربعات جزئی( PLS-SEM). ترجمه: عادل آذر و رسول غلام‌زاده. تهران: نگاه دانش.

محسنین، شهریار و اسفیدانی، محمدرحیم (1396). معادلات ساختاری مبتنی بر رویکرد حداقل مربعات جزئی به کمک   نرم‌افزار PLS. تهران، نشر کتاب مهربان. 

Arasti, Z. (2011). An empirical study on the causes of business failure in Iranian context. African journal of business management, 5(17):7488-7498.

Arasti, Z., Zandi, F., & Bahmani, N. (2014). Business failure factors in Iranian SMEs: Do successful and unsuccessful entrepreneurs have different viewpoints?. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 4(1), 10-23.

Arasti, Z., Zandi, F., & Talebi, K. (2012). Exploring the effect of individual factors on business failure in Iranian new established small businesses. International Business Research, 5(4), 2-11.

Ashoori, S., & Mohammadi, S. (2011). Compare failure prediction models based on feature selection technique: empirical case from Iran. Procedia Computer Science, 3, 568-573.

Bajwa, S. S., Wang, X., Nguyen Duc, A., & Abrahamsson, P. (2016). “Failures” to be celebrated: an analysis of major pivots of software startups. Empirical Software Engineering, 22(5), 2373–2408.

Battistella, C., De Toni, A.F., & Pessot, E. (2017). Open accelerators for start-ups success: a case study. European Journal of Innovation Management20(1), 80-111.

Berryman, J. (1983). Small Business Failure and Survey of the Literature. European Small Business Journal1(4), 47–59. 

Bruno, A.V., Leidecker, J.K., & Harder, J. W. (1987). Why firms fail. Business Horizons30(2), 50-58.

Busenitz, L. W., & Barney, J. B. (1997). Differences between entrepreneurs and managers in large organizations: Biases and heuristics in strategic decision-making. Journal of business venturing12(1), 9-30.

Cardon, M.S., & McGrath, R.G. (1999). When the going gets tough... Toward a psychology of entrepreneurial failure and re-motivation. Frontiers of entrepreneurship research29(4), 58-72.

Cantamessa, M., Gatteschi, V., Perboli, G., & Rosano, M. (2018). Startups’ Roads to Failure. Sustainability, 10(7), 1-19.

Cooper, A.C., Gimeno-Gascon, F.J. & Woo, C.Y. (1994), Initial human and financial capital as predictors of new venture performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 9 (5), 371-395.

Cope, J. (2011). Entrepreneurial learning from failure: An interpretative phenomenological analysis. Journal of business venturing26(6), 604-623.

Crowne, M. (2002), Why software product startups fail and what to do about it. Evolution of software product development in startup companies, Proceedings of International Engineering Management Conference (IEMC), IEEE, 338-343.

Eklund, J., Levratto, N. & Ramello, G.B. (2018) Entrepreneurship and failure: two sides of the same coin? Small Business Economics, 50(4), 1-10.

Gartner, W. B. (1988). “Who is an entrepreneur?” is the wrong question. American journal of small business12(4), 11-32.

Gaskill, L.R., Van Auken, H.E., & Manning, R.A. (1993). A factor analytic study of the perceived causes of small business failure. Journal of small business management31, 18-18.

Giardino, C., Bajwa, S. S., Wang, X., & Abrahamsson, P. (2015). Key Challenges in Early-Stage Software Startups. International Conference on Agile Software Development, Helsinki, Finland.

Giardino, C., Wang, X., & Abrahamsson, P. (2014). Why Early-Stage Software Startups Fail: A Behavioral Framework, International Conference of Software Business, Paphos, Cyprus.

Gibb, A.A. (1993). Enterprise culture and education: Understanding enterprise education and its links with small business, entrepreneurship and wider educational goals. International small business journal11(3), 11-34.

Gimeno, J., Folta, T.B., Cooper, A.C., & Woo, C.Y. (1997). Survival of the fittest? Entrepreneurial human capital and the persistence of underperforming firms. Administrative science quarterly, 42 (4), 750-783.

Hartmann, H. (1959). Managers and entrepreneurs: a useful distinction? Administrative Science Quarterly, 429-451.

Headd, B. (2003). Redefining business success: Distinguishing between closure and failure. Small business economics21(1), 51-61.

Hoetker, G., & Agarwal, R. (2007). Death hurts, but it isn't fatal: The postexit diffusion of knowledge created by innovative companies. Academy of Management Journal50(2), 446-467.

Jenkins, A., & McKelvie, A. (2016). What is entrepreneurial failure? Implications for future research. International Small Business Journal34(2), 176–188.

Knott, A.M., & Posen, H.E. (2005). Is failure good?. Strategic Management Journal26(7), 617-641.

Kuratko, D.F., & Hodgetts, R.M. (2001). Entrepreneurship: A contemporary approach. South-Western/Thomson Learning.

Larson, C.M., & Clute, R.C. (1979). The failure syndrome. American journal of small business4(2), 35-43.

McGrath, R.G. (1999). Falling forward: Real options reasoning and entrepreneurial failure. Academy of Management review24(1), 13-30.

Miner, J. B., & Raju, N. S. (2004). Risk Propensity Differences Between Managers and Entrepreneurs and Between Low- and High-Growth Entrepreneurs: A Reply in a More Conservative Vein. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(1), 3-13.

Nikolic, N., Jovanović, I., Nikolić, Đ., Mihajlović, I., & Schulte, P. (2019). Investigation of the Factors Influencing SME Failure as a Function of Its Prevention and Fast Recovery after Failure. Entrepreneurship Research Journal., 9(3), 1-21.

Omrane, A., Kammoun, A., & Seaman, C. (2018). Entrepreneurial Burnout: Causes, Consequences and Way Out. FIIB Business Review7(1), 28-42.

Ooghe, H., & De Prijcker, S. (2006). Failure processes and causes of company bankruptcy: a typology. Department of Accountancy & Corporate Finance, Ghent University, Working Paper388.

Rasekhi, B., Ghanbari, M.R., & Alibayghi, A., (2017). Analysis of Failure Costs of Rural Entrepreneurs in Kermanshah Township. Journal of Rural Research, 8 (2), 178-193.

Shah, D., Wilkinson, M. & Yallup, K. (2008), Analysis of the factors leading to success or failure of start-up companies in the field of micro and nanotechnology, in Groen, A., Van Der Sijde, P., Oakey, R. and Cook, G. (Eds), New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millennium, Vol. 6, Emerald, Bingley, 203-218.

Shepherd, D.A. (2003). Learning from business failure: Propositions of grief recovery for self-employed. Academy of management Review28(2), 318-328.

Shepherd, D.A., Douglas, E. J., & Shanley, M. (2000). New venture survival: Ignorance, external shocks, and risk reduction strategies. Journal of Business Venturing15(5-6), 393-410.

Shepherd, D.A., & Haynie, J. M. (2011). Venture failure, stigma, and impression management: A self‐verification, self‐determination view. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal5(2), 178-197.

Shepherd, D.A., & Wiklund, J. (2006). Successes and failures at research on business failure and learning from it. Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship 2 (5), 1–35.

Singh, S., Corner, P., & Pavlovich, K. (2007). Coping with entrepreneurial failure. Journal of Management & Organization13(4), 331-344.

Stewart Jr, W. H., & Roth, P. L. (2001). Risk propensity differences between entrepreneurs and managers: A meta-analytic review. Journal of applied psychology86(1), 145.

Ucbasaran, D., Shepherd, D.A., Lockett, A., & Lyon, S.J. (2013). Life after business failure: The process and consequences of business failure for entrepreneurs. Journal of Management39(1), 163-202.

Wu, W.W. (2010). Beyond business failure prediction. Expert systems with applications37(3), 2371-2376.

Zacharakis, A.L., Meyer G.D., & De Castro, J.O. (1999). Differing Perception of New Venture Failure: A Matched Exploratory Study of Venture Capitalists and Entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business Management, 37(3) 1-14.