مدل سازی و پیکره بندی عوامل اثرگذار بر ایجاد اکوسیستم کارآفرینی پردیس دانشگاهی

نوع مقاله: مقالات پژوهشی آمیخته

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکده کارآفرینی دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشیار دانشکده کارآفرینی دانشگاه تهران، گروه کارافرینی فناورانه

3 دانشجوی دکتری دانشکده کارآفرینی دانشگاه تهران،

4 دانشیار دانشکده کارآفرینی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

موضوع ایجاد اکوسیستم کارآفرینی پردیس دانشگاهی، یکی از چالش‌های پیشِ روی سیاست‌گذران توسعه کارآفرینی در نظام آموزش عالی محسوب می‌شود. هدف اصلی این پژوهش، مدل‌سازی و پیکره‌بندی عوامل اثرگذار بر ایجاد اکوسیستم کارآفرینانه پردیس دانشگاهی، از طریق سطح‌بندی و تعیین میزان شدت تعاملات آن‌هاست. براین اساس روش تحقیق این پژوهش از لحاظ هدف، کاربردی و از منظر گردآوری اطلاعات، آمیخته-اکتشافی است. این پژوهش دارای دو بخش کیفی  برای شناسایی و سطح‌بندی عوامل موثر در شکل‌گیری UCE2 و یک بخشی کمّی برای اندازه‌گیری تعاملات عوامل است.  روش نمونه‌گیری در هر دو بخش کمّی و کیفی، به‌صورت هدفمند و با استفاده از روش گلوله برفی انجام شده است. در بخش کیفی، ابتدا از مصاحبه نیمه‌ساختاریافته با 20 نفر از خبرگان برای شناسایی عوامل اثرگذار در UCE2 و در مرحله بعد، برای تعیین سطوح عوامل از مدل‌سازی ساختاری- تفسیری استفاده شده است. در بخش تحلیل کمّی نیز از روش دیمتل استفاده شده است. به این منظور پرسش‌نامه دیمتل در اختیار 12 نفر از خبرگان قرار گرفت و با استفاده از مدل‌سازی دیمتل، میزان تاثیر عوامل محاسبه شد. نتایج تحقیق، 9 عامل مهم و اثربخش را در شکل‌گیری UCE2 نشان می‌دهد، و مجموع  این عوامل در سه دسته عوامل منطقه‌ای، فرهنگ و دانشگاهی طبقه‌بندی  می‌شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Modeling and configuration of Factors Affecting on university campus entrepreneurship ecosystem (UCE2) Creation

نویسندگان [English]

  • MohamadReza Meigounpoory 1
  • abolghasem arabiun 2
  • Mohammad Mehdi Poorbasir 3
  • Ali Mobini Dehkordi 4
1 Faculty member, entrepreneurship faculty, university of Tehran
2 Associated professor, University of Tehran, Entrepreneurship Faculty
3 PhD student of entrepreneurship faculty,university of Tehran
4 Associated Professor, Entrepreneurship Faculty, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

the issue of creating university campus entrepreneurship ecosystem (UCE2) is of ‎one the challenges faced by entrepreneurship development policy makers in ‎higher education. The main objective of this research is to model and configuration ‎the factors affecting the creation of the university campus entrepreneurship ‎ecosystem through the leveling and determining the extent of their interactions. In ‎this research, using a mixed- exploratory method, Accordingly, the research ‎method of this research is applied and from the perspective of information ‎gathering, descriptive and survey. This research has a qualitative section and a ‎quantitative part for identifying and leveling the effective factors in the formation ‎of UCE2 and a quantitative part for measuring the interactions of the factors. The ‎method of sampling in both quantitative and qualitative parts is purposive and ‎through a snowball method. In the qualitative section, semi-structured interviews ‎were initially used by 20 experts to identify the effective factors in UCE2, and in the ‎next step, Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM)‎ was used to determine the levels ‎of factors. In the quantitative analysis, the method of DEMATEL has been used. For ‎this purpose, the questionnaire of DEMATEL was provided to 12 experts. Using ‎DEMATEL modeling, the effect of factors was calculated. The results of the ‎research show that 9 important factors affecting the formation of UCE2 are ‎classified into three levels of regional factors, culture and university factors.‎

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Entrepreneurship ecosystems
  • University Entrepreneurship Ecosystem
  • Interpretive Structural Analysis
  • University-Based Entrepreneurship ecosystems
داوری، علی؛  سفیدبری، لیلا و  باقرصاد، وجیهه(1396)، عوامل اکوسیستم کارآفرینی ایران براساس مدل آیزنبرگ، توسعه کارآفرینی، دوره 10 (1): 120-100.
قمبرعلی، رضوان؛ آگهی، حسین؛ علی‌بیگی، امیرحسن و کیومرث زرافشانی(1395)، واکاوی محتوای سیاست‌ها در تطابق با ابعاد اکوسیستم کارآفرینی، توسعه کارآفرینی،  9 (1):  39-58.
Barnes, T., Pashby, I., & Gibbons, A. (2002). Effective University–Industry Interaction: A Multi-case Evaluation of Collaborative R&D Projects. European Management Journal, 20(3), 272-285.
Biernacki, P., & Waldorf, D. (1981). Snowball sampling: Problems and techniques of chain referral sampling. Sociological methods & research, 10(2), 141-163.
Clark, B. R. (1998). Creating entrepreneurial universities: organizational pathways of transformation. Issues in Higher Education. Pergamon Press, New York
Theodotou, M. (2012). Cyprus Entrepreneurship Ecosystem: A roadmap for economic growth, Curveball Limited; November 2012 edition, 8-12.
Durst, S., & Poutanen, P. (2013, June). Success factors of innovation Ecosystems-Initial insights from a literature review. In Proceedings of Co-Create 2013: The Boundary-Crossing Conference on Co-Design in Innovation (pp. 16-19). Espoo, Finland: Aalto University.
Etzkowitz, H. (1983). Entrepreneurial scientists and entrepreneurial universities in American academic science. Minerva, 21(2-3), 198-233.
Etzkowitz, H. (2003). Research groups as ‘quasi-firms’: the invention of the entrepreneurial university. Research policy, 32(1), 109-121.
Fetters, M., Greene, P. G., & Rice, M. P. (Eds.). (2010). The development of university-based entrepreneurship ecosystems: global practices. Edward Elgar Publishing
Florida, R. (2002). The rise of the creative class and how it's transforming work, life, community and everyday life, NewYork: Basic Books
Fu, E., Hsia, T. (2014).  Universities and Entrepreneurial Ecosystems: Elements of the Stanford-Silicon Valley Success. Retrieved from http://www.kauffmanfellows.org/journal_posts/universities-and-entrepreneurial-ecosystems-stanford-silicon-valley-success/.
Gibb, A. (2005). Towards the entrepreneurial university: Entrepreneurship education as a lever for change (Policy paper). National Council for Graduate Entrepreneurship, (NCGE) Policy Paper Retrieved from www.ncee.org.uk.
Graham, R. (2014). Creating university-based entrepreneurial ecosystems: evidence from emerging world leaders. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Guerrero, M., & Urbano, D. (2012). The development of an entrepreneurial university. The journal of technology transfer, 37(1), 43-74.
Guer rero, M., Urbano, D., & Salamzadeh, A. (2014). Evolving entrepreneurial universities: Experiences and challenges in the Middle Eastern context. Handbook of research in entrepreneurship education: Entrepreneurial University handbook, 4, 163-187.
Isenberg, D. (2011). The entrepreneurship ecosystem strategy as a new paradigm for economic policy: principles for cultivating entrepreneurship. The Babson entrepreneurship ecosystem project. Retrieved from http://www.wheda.com/root/uploadedFiles/Website/About_Wheda/ Babson%20 Entrepreneurship %20Ecosystem%20Project.pdf Isenberg, D. (2014). What an entrepreneurship ecosystem actually is. Harvard Business Review, 5, 1-7.
Isenberg, D. J. (2010). How to start an entrepreneurial revolution. Harvard business review, 88(6), 40-50.
Jacobs, J. (1961). The death and life of American cities. Vintage; Reissue edition (1992), 200-202
Malecki, E. J. (2011). Connecting local entrepreneurial ecosystems to global innovation networks: open innovation, double networks and knowledge integration. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 14(1), 36-59.
Mason, C., & Brown, R. (2014). Entrepreneurial ecosystems and growth oriented entrepreneurship. Final Report to OECD, Paris, 30(1), 77-102.
Miller, D. J., & Acs, Z. J. (2017). The campus as entrepreneurial ecosystem: the University of Chicago. Small Business Economics, 49(1), 75-95.
Morris, M. H., Kuratko, D. F., & Cornwall, J. R. (2013). Entrepreneurship programs and the modern university. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Morris, M. H., Shirokova, G., & Tsukanova, T. (2017). Student entrepreneurship and the university ecosystem: a multi-country empirical exploration. European Journal of International Management, 11(1), 65-85.
Nelson, A. J., & Monsen, E. (2014). Teaching technology commercialization: introduction to the special section. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 39(5), 774-779.
Rideout, E. C., & Gray, D. O. (2013). Does entrepreneurship education really work? A review and methodological critique of the empirical literature on the effects of university‐based entrepreneurship education. Journal of Small Business Management, 51(3), 329-351.
Salamzadeh, A., Farsi, J. Y., & Salamzadeh, Y. (2013). Entrepreneurial universities in Iran: a system dynamics model. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 20(4), 420-445.
Shane, S. (2009). Why encouraging more people to become entrepreneurs is bad public policy. Small business economics, 33(2), 141-149.
Sieger, P., Fueglistaller, U., & Zellweger, T. (2014). Student entrepreneurship across the globe: a look at intentions and activities.
Tansley, A. G. (1935). The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms. Ecology, 16(3), 284-307.
Van de Ven, H. (1993). The development of an infrastructure for entrepreneurship. Journal of Business venturing, 8(3), 211-230.
WEF (World Economic Forum) (2014) Entrepreneurial Ecosystems around the Globe and Early-Stage Company Growth Dynamics, World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland.
Thomsen, B., Muurlink, O., & Best, T. (2018). The political ecology of university-based social entrepreneurship ecosystems. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, 12(2), 199-219.
Kvale, S. (1996). Interviews: An Introduction to qualitative research interviewing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.