Presenting the model of internationalization of cooperative-oriented business in Iran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Technology Entrepreneurship, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Islamic Azad University Qazvin Branch, Qazvin, Iran

2 Department of new business, Faculty of Entrepreneurship , University of Tehran

3 Department of Corporate Entrepreneurship, Faculty of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.


Objective: In today's rapidly evolving world, characterized by pervasive uncertainties, internationalization has become a compelling imperative. Driven by an insistent need to access foreign markets and diversify financial portfolios, companies are compelled to embark on this journey. Consequently, the primary aim of this study is to present a model that facilitates the expansion of cooperative enterprises into global markets.
Method: To achieve this goal, we adopted a hybrid research approach, integrating elements of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. In the initial phase, we conducted a series of 19 semi-structured interviews with domain specialists and experts, focusing on the internationalization model of cooperative businesses. This qualitative research phase was complemented by specialized software, specifically MAXQDA, for meticulous coding and analysis.Subsequently, during the second stage, data collection involved the administration of a comprehensive questionnaire to 384 managerial and expert stakeholders within cooperative enterprises. We employed the Structural Equation Method (SEM) to rigorously examine the relationships among theoretical elements, utilizing the Smart Pls3 software suite. The qualitative portion of the research determined the sample size through purposive sampling and saturation principles, while the quantitative segment employed random cluster sampling.Before disseminating the questionnaire within the broader society, its face validity underwent rigorous scrutiny by esteemed university professors. Additionally, the reliability of all variables was confirmed through the calculation of Cronbach's alpha.
Results: The findings of this study are divided into two prominent sections. In the initial segment, we have succinctly encapsulated an array of factors influencing the internationalization of cooperative-oriented enterprises in the form of a paradigm model, a topic that has received relatively limited scholarly attention. This model comprises five indispensable components: causal conditions, contextual conditions, intervening conditions, strategies, and consequences.
The latter section of the findings is dedicated to assessing the significance of these aforementioned factors. The research outcomes underscore the pivotal role of causal conditions, with a path coefficient of 0.524, exerting a substantive, positive, and statistically significant influence on the central phenomenon. Similarly, the central phenomenon itself, with a path coefficient of 0.137, exerts a positive influence. The substrate, with a path coefficient of 0.295, and intervening factors, marked with a path coefficient of 0.473, both exhibit positive and statistically significant effects. Remarkably, the customer-oriented strategy, endowed with a path coefficient of 0.793, exerts the most profound and statistically significant positive impact on the outcomes.
Conclusion: In light of the elucidated pattern, it is evident that augmenting and fortifying each identified influential component, accompanied by context-specific strategies, holds the potential to catalyze the internationalization endeavors of cooperative-oriented enterprises. Furthermore, the research findings underscore the paramount importance of the customer-oriented strategy in shaping diverse relationships and outcomes, underscoring the necessity for meticulous planning and organization within this domain.To enhance the international presence of cooperative enterprises, we strongly recommend that these entities address the identified causal factors and diligently implement the strategies derived from this model. These proactive measures have the potential to significantly contribute to the attainment of desirable outcomes and the augmentation of cooperative enterprise performance on the global stage. Consequently, it is incumbent upon the nation's cooperative sector to proactively address root causes and meticulously execute strategies derived from this model, thereby enhancing their presence in international markets.


Main Subjects

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