Identifying and analyzing the feedback obstacles of entrepreneurship teachers (study of Case: Entrepreneurship Faculty of Tehran University)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Master of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran

2 Assistant Professor at Shahid Beheshti UniversityUniversity of Tehran


Feedback is a considerable part of the assessment process which provides an opportunity for the teachers to reform the teaching and learning methodology. In fact, feedback is a powerful tool in the learning process which leads to an improvement in the performance of the faculty members. On this account, this study aims to identify the feedback barriers of the board members of Entrepreneurship Faculty of Tehran University. The method of this paper based on practical purpose that method of data collection was qualitative research.  Hence, after designing the questions and using the semi-structured interview with the entrepreneurship faculty professors, the required data were collected; afterwards by applying the steps offered in Strauss’s Model, the data were analyzed and the results were presented. The findings revealed that there were feedback barriers in four levels including self-regulatory, process-based, functional and personal levels among the professors of Entrepreneurship Faculty of Tehran University


Main Subjects

خانی‌جزنی، ج. (1388). تأثیر آموزش کارآفرینی بر ارتقای فرهنگ کارآفرینی در دانشگاه­های کشور. اقتصاد و تجارت نوین، 1(3), 242-266.
علیمیری، م. (1387). آموزش کارآفرینی: پیدایش، توسعه، گرایش­ها و چالش­ها. فصلنامۀ توسعه کارآفرینی، 1(1)؛ 133-170.
Alders, M. L. (2000). "The influence of goal orientation on employee response to performance feedback: Making organizational feedback system more effective,." Ph.D. Dissertation University of Southern California.
Avery, A. J., S. Rodgers, J. A. Cantrill, S. Armstrong, K. Cresswell, M. Eden, R. A. Elliott, R. Howard, D. Kendrick and C. J. Morris (2012). "A pharmacist-led information technology intervention for medication errors (PINCER): a multicentre, cluster randomised, controlled trial and cost-effectiveness analysis." The Lancet 379(9823): 1310-1319.
Brookhart, S. M. (2008). How to give effective feedback to your students, ASCD.
Brookhart, S. M. (2013). Grading and Group Work: How do I assess individual learning when students work together?(ASCD Arias), ASCD.
Cairns, A. (2014). "Developing entry-level entrepreneurship training in Western Kenya: Using feedback as a tool to improve quality of future trainings."
Clynes, M. P. and S. E. Raftery (2008). "Feedback: an essential element of student learning in clinical practice." Nurse Education in practice 8(6): 405-411.
Clynes , R., MP, SE. (2008). "Feedback: an essential element of student learning in clinical practice." Nurse Educ Pract: 11-405.
Crommelinck, M. (2013). The role of feedback in creativity, innovation, and entrepreneurship, Ghent University.
Ende, J. (1983). "Feedback in clinical medical education." Jama 250(6): 777-781.
Fisher, C. D. (1979). "Transmission of positive and negative feedback to subordinates: A laboratory investigation." Journalof Applied Psychology,: 533.
Fisher D, F. N. (2009). "Feed up, back, forward." Educational Leadership.: 20-25.
Fisher, D. and N. Frey (2009). "Feed up, back, forward." Educational Leadership 67(3): 20-25.
Fokkema, J. P., F. Scheele, M. Westerman, J. van Exel, A. J. Scherpbier, C. P. van der Vleuten, P. J. Dörr and P. W. Teunissen (2014). "Perceived effects of innovations in postgraduate medical education: AQ study focusing on workplace-based assessment." Academic Medicine 89(9): 1259-1266.
Gan, M. J. and J. Hattie (2014). "Prompting secondary students’ use of criteria, feedback specificity and feedback levels during an investigative task." Instructional Science 42(6): 861-878.
Gigante, J., M. Dell and A. Sharkey (2011). "Getting beyond “good job”: how to give effective feedback." Pediatrics 127(2): 205-207.
Hattie, J. and H. Timperley (2007). "The power of feedback." Review of educational research 77(1): 81-112.
Jonassen, D. H. (2004). Handbook of research on educational communications and technology, Taylor & Francis.
Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). "The effects of feedback interventions on performance: a historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory." Psychological bulletin,: 254.
Koh, L. C. (2008). "Refocusing formative feedback to enhance learning in pre-registration nurse education." Nurse Education in Practice 8(4): 223-230.
Krackov S, D. J., Harden R. (2009). Giving feedback,. London, Dent J, Harden R (editors).A practical guide for medical teachers.
McGaghie, W. C., S. B. Issenberg, E. R. Petrusa and R. J. Scalese (2010). "A critical review of simulation‐based medical education research: 2003–2009." Medical education 44(1): 50-63.
McTighe, J. and G. Wiggins (2015). Solving 25 Problems in Unit Design: how do I refine my units to enhance student learning?(ASCD Arias), ASCD.
Merriam, S. B. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. Revised and expanded from, ERIC.
Mitchell, J. (2012). "Value chain approaches to assessing the impact of tourism on low-income households in developing countries." Journal of Sustainable Tourism 20(3): 457-475.
Nicol, D. (2010). "From monologue to dialogue: improving written feedback processes in mass higher education." Assessment & Evaluation in HigherEducation: 501-517.
O'shea, R. P., T. J. Allen, A. Chevalier and F. Roche (2005). "Entrepreneurial orientation, technology transfer and spinoff performance of US universities." Research policy 34(7): 994-1009.
Ovando, M. (1992). "“Constructive feedback: A key to successful teaching and Learning”." ERIC Document Reproduction Service
Phan, P. and D. S. Siegel (2006). "The effectiveness of university technology transfer." Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship 2.
Porter, M. E., J. Sachs, P. K. Cornelius, J. W. McArthur and K. Schwab (2002). The global competitiveness report 2001-2002, Oxford University Press New York, NY.
Price, M., K. Handley, J. Millar and B. O'Donovan (2010). "Feedback: all that effort, but what is the effect?" Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 35(3): 277-289.
Race, P. (2001). "Using feedback to help students learn." HEA, York.
Raeesi, R., M. Dastranj, S. Mohammadi and E. Rasouli (2013). "Understanding the interactions among the barriers to entrepreneurship using interpretive structural modeling." international Journal of Business and Management 8(13): 56.
Rakoczy, K., B. Harks, E. Klieme, W. Blum and J. Hochweber (2013). "Written feedback in mathematics: Mediated by students' perception, moderated by goal orientation." Learning and Instruction 27: 63-73.
Rogers DA, B. M., Schwind CJ, Meier AH, Wall JC, Brenner MJ. (2012). "Engaging medical students in the feedback process." Am J Surg.: 21-25.
Sadler, D. R. (1989). "Formative assessment and the design of instructional systems." Instructional science 18(2): 119-144.
Sarasvathy, S. D. (2004). "The questions we ask and the questions we care about: reformulating some problems in entrepreneurship research." Journal of Business Venturing 19(5): 707-717.
Shaw, T. J. (2009). Theeffects of different podcasting strategies on student achievement in a large, college level inquiry biology course, Citeseer.
Siegel, D. S., D. A. Waldman, L. E. Atwater and A. N. Link (2004). "Toward a model of the effective transfer of scientific knowledge from academicians to practitioners: qualitative evidence from the commercialization of university technologies." Journal of engineering and technology management 21(1): 115-142.
Sobel, R. S., J. Clark and D. R. Lee (2007). "Freedom, barriers to entry, entrepreneurship, and economic progress." The Review of Austrian Economics 20(4): 221-236.
Spacco, J., D. Hovemeyer, W. Pugh, F. Emad, J. K. Hollingsworth and N. Padua-Perez (2006). "Experiences with marmoset: designing and using an advanced submission and testing system for programming courses." ACM SIGCSE Bulletin 38(3): 13-17.
Strauss, A. and J. Corbin (1994). "Grounded theory methodology." Handbook of qualitative research 17: 273-285.
Telio, S., R. Ajjawi and G. Regehr (2015). "The “educational alliance” as a framework for reconceptualizing feedback in medical education." Academic Medicine 90(5): 609-614.
Van Dierdonck, R., K. Debackere and B. Engelen (1990). "University-industry relationships: How does the Belgian academic community feel about it?" Research Policy 19(6): 551-566.
Wiliam, D. (2011). "What is assessment for learning?" Studies in Educational Evaluation 37(1): 3-14.
Zamel, V. (1981). "“Cybernetics: A Model for feedback in the ESL classroom." TESOL Quarterly. : 139-151.
Zamel, V. (1981)."Cybernetics: A model for feedback in the ESL classroom." TESOL Quarterly 15(2): 139-150.