Openness in Process Innovation: A Systematic Review and Research Agenda

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Phd. Student- Organizational Entrepreneurship - Faculty of Entrepreneurship - University of Tehran

2 Faculty of Entrepreneurship - University of Tehran


In this paper, we examine how the openness in firms’ boundaries is feasible when doing process innovation and what determines this open process innovation. So, we consolidated previous researches on process innovation through a precise systematic review of the 68 researches published between 2001 and 2020; then we synthesized various research-based findings to a comprehensive framework about OPI attributes and pillars. OPI attributes presents four main themes as technology intensity, significance, magnitude and locus of exploitation. OPI pillars is consistent of mechanisms, partners, achievments and antecedents. Finally, we argued missing links in the literature and provided future research agenda, according to three main paths: 1) to use more variety of methods - changing quantitative dominance to qualitative and multi-method approaches; 2) to emphasize development and testing; 3) to conduct more cross-national and cross-sectoral studies.


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