Entrepreneurial ecosystem and competitiveness in selected industries

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Entrepreneurship, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran


Competitiveness is a tool for achieving desirable economic growth and sustainable development in every country, and if entrepreneurs are placed in a good environment, they can improve their competitive performance, so the development of the entrepreneurial ecosystem will increase effective competitiveness. Entrepreneurial ecosystems are a set of factors that create environments that support innovation-driven venture capital. Therefore, this paper examines the impact of the entrepreneurship ecosystem from six dimensions of policy, finance, support, markets, human capital and culture on the competitiveness of industries. This research is an applied, descriptive-correlational. The sample consisted of 130 companies in the competitive industries selected on the basis of the Herfindahl index. Questionnaires were used for data collection and data were analyzed by SPSS26 and smartPLS software. According to the findings, the entrepreneurial ecosystem with six dimensions is effective on the competitiveness of industries


داوری، علی و رضازاده، آرش(1394). مدل‌سازی معادلات ساختاری با نرم‌افزار PLS، تهران: انتشارات جهاددانشگاهی، چاپ چهارم.
داوری، علی؛ سفیدبری، لیلا و باقرصاد، وجیه (1396). عوامل اکوسیستم کارآفرینی ایران براساس مدل آیزنبرگ، توسعه کارآفرینی،10 (1): 100-120.
Agnihotri, P., & Santhanam, H. (2002). International marketing strategies for global competitiveness. In The Seventh International Conference in Global Business And Economic Development. Bangkok, Thailand.
Aldrich, H. E. (1990). Interdisciplinary forum. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice14(3), 7-7.
Alves, A. C., Fischer, B., Vonortas, N. S., & Queiroz, S. R. R. D. (2019). Configurations of knowledge-intensive entrepreneurial ecosystems. Revista de Administração de Empresas59(4), 242-257
Amolo, J., & Migiro, S. O. (2015). An entrepreneurial flair development: the role of an ecosystem. Change, 9. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 13(2),
Arruda, C., Nogueira, V. S., Cozzi, A., & Costa, V. (2015). The Brazilian entrepreneurial ecosystem of startups: an analysis of entrepreneurship determinants in Brazil and the perceptions around the Brazilian regulatory framework. In Entrepreneurship in BRICS (Vol. 2, pp. 9-26). Springer, Cham.
Asheim, B. T., Smith, H. L., & Oughton, C. (2011). Regional innovation systems: theory, empirics and policy. Regional studies45(7), 875-891.
Audretsch, D. B., & Belitski, M. (2017). Entrepreneurial ecosystems in cities: establishing the framework conditions. The Journal of Technology Transfer42(5), 1030-1051.
Audretsch, D. B., Cunningham, J. A., Kuratko, D. F., Lehmann, E. E., & Menter, M. (2019). Entrepreneurial ecosystems: economic, technological, and societal impacts. The Journal of technology transfer44(2), 313-325.
Bain, J. S. (1956). Barriers to new competition, their character and consequences in manufacturing industries (No. HB771 B23).
Baker, T., Gedajlovic, E., & Lubatkin, M. (2005). A framework for comparing entrepreneurship processes across nations. Journal of International Business Studies36(5), 492-504.
Bertoni, F., Colombo, M. G., & Quas, A. (2019). The role of governmental venture capital in the venture capital ecosystem: An organizational ecology perspective. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice43(3), 611-628.
Diebold, W., Scott, B. R., & Lodge, G. C. (1985). U.S. Competitiveness in the World Economy. Foreign Affairs, 63(4), 916
Espinoza, C., Mardones, C., Sáez, K., & Catalán, P. (2019). Entrepreneurship and regional dynamics: the case of Chile. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 31(9-10), 755-767.
Faghih, N., & Zali, M. R. (2018). Entrepreneurship Ecosystem in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Springer, Cham.
Feldman, M., Siegel, D. S., & Wright, M. (2019). New developments in innovation and entrepreneurial ecosystems. Industrial and Corporate Change28(4), 817-826.
GEM. (2018). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor IRAN. Choice Reviews Online.
Groth, O. J., Esposito, M., & Tse, T. (2015). What Europe needs is an innovation‐driven entrepreneurship ecosystem: Introducing EDIE. Thunderbird International Business Review57(4), 263-269.
Huggins, R., & Williams, N. (2011). Entrepreneurship and regional competitiveness: The role and progression of policy. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development23(9-10), 907-932.
Isenberg, D. (2010). How to start an entrepreneurial revolution. Harvard business review88(6), 40-50.
Isenberg, D. (2011). The consequences of entrepreneurial finance: Evidence from angel financingsThe Entrepreneurship Ecosystem Strategy as a New Paradigm for Economic Policy: Principles for Cultivating Entrepreneurship. Review of Financial Studies, 27(1), 20–55.
Kang, D., & Park, Y. (2019). Analysing diffusion pattern of mobile application services in Korea using the competitive Bass model and Herfindahl index. Applied Economics Letters26(3), 222-230.
Kumar, P., Dass, M., & Kumar, S. (2015). From competitive advantage to nodal advantage: Ecosystem structure and the new five forces that affect prosperity. Business Horizons58(4), 469-481.
Liguori, E., Bendickson, J., Solomon, S., & McDowell, W. C. (2019). Development of a multi-dimensional measure for assessing entrepreneurial ecosystems. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development31(1-2), 7-21.
Manimala, M. J., Thomas, P., & Thomas, P. K. (2019). Perception of Entrepreneurial Ecosystem: Testing the Actor–Observer Bias. The Journal of Entrepreneurship28(2), 316-342.
Mason, C., & Brown, R. (2014). Entrepreneurial ecosystems and growth oriented entrepreneurship. Final Report to OECD, Paris30(1), 77-102.
Mazzarol, T. (2014). Growing and sustaining entrepreneurial ecosystems: The role of regulation, infrastructure and financing
Momaya, K. (2011). Cooperation for competitiveness of emerging countries: learning from a case of nanotechnology. Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal. 21(2), 152-170.
Moon, H. C., Rugman, A. M., & Verbeke, A. (1998). A generalized double diamond approach to the global competitiveness of Korea and Singapore. International business review7(2), 135-150.
Muldoon, J., Bauman, A., & Lucy, C. (2018). Entrepreneurial ecosystem: do you trust or distrust?. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy.
OECD. (2015). New Approaches to SME and Entrepreneurship Financing. In New Approaches to SME and Entrepreneurship Financing. Broadening the range of instruments. Pariz: OECD Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs and Local Development.
Porter, M. E. (2000). Location, competition, and economic development: Local clusters in a global economy. Economic development quarterly, 14(1), 15-34.
Rezaei, S., Dana, L. P., & Ramadani, V. (Eds.). (2017). Iranian entrepreneurship: Deciphering the entrepreneurial ecosystem in Iran and in the Iranian diaspora. Springer.
Soto-Rodríguez, E. (2015). Entrepreneurial ecosystems as a pathway towards competitiveness: The case of Puerto Rico. Journal of Competitiveness Studies23(1/2), 55-67
Spigel, B. (2015). The relational organization of entrepreneurial ecosystems. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice41(1), 49-72.
Spigel, B., & Harrison, R. (2017). Toward a process theory of entrepreneurial ecosystems. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal12(1), 151-168.
Staber, U. (1997). An ecological perspective on entrepreneurship in industrial districts. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development9(1), 45-64.
Stam, E. (2015). Entrepreneurial ecosystems and regional policy: a sympathetic critique. European Planning Studies23(9), 1759-1769.
Stam, F. C., & Spigel, B. (2016). Entrepreneurial ecosystems. USE Discussion paper series16(13).
Suresh, J., & Ramraj, R. (2012). Entrepreneurial ecosystem: Case study on the influence of environmental factors on entrepreneurial success. European Journal of Business and Management4(16), 95-101
Temko, S. (2009). An overview to entrepreneurial ecosystems. Center for Business Education, Innovation and Development1(3).
Theodotou, M., Christoforou, C., & Anayiotos, C. P. (2012). Cyprus Entrepreneurship Ecosystem: A roadmap for economic growth. Nicosia: Curveball Ltd.
Troisi, O., Ciasullo, M. V., Carrubbo, L., Sarno, D., & Grimaldi, M. (2019). Meta-management for sustainability in territorial ecosystems: The case of Libera’s social reuse of territory. Land use policy84, 138-153.
UNCTAD. (2013). Policy Framework. In Urban Regeneration in the UK United Nations. Conference on Trade and Development UNCTAD, Creative economy Report.
UNIDO, (2013). Competitive Industrial Performance Report UNIDO 2012-2013. I, 170. Report_UNIDO 2012_2013.PDF
UNIDO. (2018). Demand for Manufacturing: Driving Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development.
Vogel, P. (2013, April). The employment outlook for youth: building entrepreneurship ecosystems as a way forward. In Conference Proceedings of the G20 Youth Forum.
Walsh, J., & Winsor, B. (2019). Socio-cultural barriers to developing a regional entrepreneurial ecosystem. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy. 13(3), 263–282.
Welter, F. (2011). Contextualizing entrepreneurship—conceptual challenges and ways forward. Entrepreneurship theory and Practice35(1), 165-184.
Yaribeigi, E., Hosseini, S. J., Lashgarara, F., Mirdamadi, S. M., & Najafabadi, M. O. (2014). Development of entrepreneurship ecosystem. International Journal of advanced biological and biomedical research2(12), 2905-2908.
Zahra, S. A., Wright, M., & Abdelgawad, S. G. (2014). Contextualization and the advancement of entrepreneurship research. International small business journal32(5), 479-500.
Zajkowski, R., & Domańska, A. (2019). Differences in perception of regional pro-entrepreneurial policy: does obtaining support change a prospect?. Oeconomia Copernicana10(2), 359-384.
Zali, M. R., & Faghih, N. (2018). Entrepreneurship Ecosystem in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). In Nezameddin Faghih & M. R. Zali (Eds.), Springer eBooks.