Identification and analysis of factors contributing to the promotion of destination attractiveness for the development of medical tourism business

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Faculty of Entrepreneurship

2 University of Tehran

3 Institute for management and planning studies


The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors affecting the promotion of destination attraction for the development of medical tourism business in Iran. The research is applied in terms of objective and used exploratory mixed method. The statistical population of the research in the qualitative section include academic experts in the field of medical tourism and hospital managers and in the quantitative section; foreign patients who have been admitted to treatment inTehran are considered. The 35 final components of the attractiveness of a country as a destination for medical tourism were obtained from 85 extractive components derived from literature review and similar research, and three rounds of Delphi's replication, which included eight main factors: the country of destination (operating conditions), demand conditions, competitiveness , government attitude, socio-cultural factors, information and marketing factors, factors related to treatment (services and medical facilities), and infrastructure and affiliated industries. The proposed model was verified by confirmatory factor analysis method in modeling structural equations using SmartPLS software. Priority and rank with Fuzzy AHP showed Factors related to treatment (services and medical facilities) with a weight of 0.259; Competitiveness with a weight of 0.188; and the Condition of the destination country with a weight of 0.166 among the eight


احمدپور داریانی، محمود (1396). "شناسایی عوامل موفقیت منابع انسانی در کسب‌وکارهای کوچک و متوسط"،  توسعه کارآفرینی، 10(1): 20-1.
اتقیائی، ارشام  (1392). "شناسایی فرصت‌های کارآفرینانه در گردشگری پزشکی شهر مشهد"، پایان‌‌نامه کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکده کارآفرینی دانشگاه تهران.
ایمان‌زاده، علی؛ همراه‌زاده، ملیکا؛ جعفریان، وحیده و  جباری، کامران (1396). " تجربیات زیسته گردشگران پزشکی از درمان در بیمارستان‌های شهر تبریز"، مطالعات مدیریت گردشگری، 12(37): 25-46.
جباری، علیرضا (1388). "طراحی الگوی گردشگری پزشکی ایران"، پایان‌نامه دکترای دانشکده مدیریت و اطلاع‌رسانی پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران.
خوارزمی، امیرعلی؛ رهنما، محمدرحیم؛ جوان، جعفر و  اجزاشکوهی، محمد (1395). "عوامل  مؤثر بر ارتقای گردشگری سلامت؛ مقایسه دیدگاه گردشگران خارجی و مدیران داخلی"، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی خراسان شمالی، 8(3): 405-416.
رنجنوش، راحله؛ بروجنی، حمیدضرغام و  حمیدی، ناصر (1395). "بخش‌بندی کسب‌وکارهای گردشگری پزشکی ایران از دید بیماران خارجی"،  برنامه‌ریزی و توسعه گردشگری، 5(18): 72-54.
شالبافان،  عالی‌اصغر(1386). "راه‌کارهای توسعه گردشگری سلامت: با رویکرد گردشگری پزشکی"،پایان‌نامه کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی.
شالبافان، عالی‌اصغر و  رحمانی، زهرا (1394). "گردشگری سلامت در رویکردی جامع"، انتشارات مهکامه.
گودرزی، مجید و  فیروزی، محمدعلی  (1395). گردشگری پزشکی،  تهران، نشرآراد.
معبودی، محمدتقی و  حکیمی،‌هادی (1394).  "عوامل تعیین‌کننده گردشگری پزشکی؛ نمونه موردی ایران"،  برنامه‌ریزی و توسعه گردشگری، 4(15): 106-80.
ملکی، سعید و توانگر، معصومه (1394). "بررسی و تحلیل چالش‌های گردشگری سلامت مشهد از منظر بیماران خارجی"،  جغرافیا و توسعه فضای شهری، 3(2)؛ 153-163.
نعمتی، ولی؛ ابراهیم‌پور، حبیب و  پورکریمی، پرویز (1394). "مفهوم‌سازی گردشگری سلامت در ایران (مفاهیم، مدل‌ها و نظریه‌ها)"، اولین همایش ملی گردشگری پایدار با رویکرد گردشگری ورزشی، سلامت و محیط‌زیست، اردبیل.
نیک‌رفتار، طیبه؛  حسینی، الهه و  مقدم، عاطفه (1396). "شناسایی عوامل  مؤثر در جذب گردشگران پزشکی در ایران"،  فصل‌نامه مدیریت سلامت،۲۰ (۶۷) :۶۴-۷۴.
هادیزاده مقدم، اکرم؛ زاهدیان‌نژاد، محمدحسین؛ قنبرزاده میاندهی، رضا و  فخارمنش، سینا (1392). "الگوی عوامل مؤثر بر انگیزه گردشگران پزشکی برای ورود به ایران"، چشم‌انداز مدیریت بازرگانی، 48: 59-79.
Altin, M. M., Singal, M., & Kara, D. (2011). Consumer decision components for medical tourism: A stakeholder approach.
Awadzi, W., & Panda, D. (2006). Medical tourism: Globalization and the marketing of medical services. Consortium Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 11(1), 75-81.
Badulescu, D., & Badulescu, A. (2014). Medical tourism: between entrepreneurship opportunities and bioethics boundaries: narrative review article. Iranian journal of public health, 43(4), 406.
Bristow, R. S., Yang, W. T., & Lu, M. T. (2011). Sustainable medical tourism in Costa Rica. Tourism Review, 66(1/2), 107-117.
Caballero-Danell S., & Mugomba C., (2007), Medical tourism and its entrepreneurial opportunities: A conceptual framework for entry into the industry. Master Thesis, Goteborg University.
Carrera, P. M., & Bridges, J. F. (2006). Globalization and healthcare: understanding health and medical tourism. Expert review of pharmacoeconomics & outcomes research, 6(4), 447-454.
Chang, I. C., Chou, P. C., Yeh, R. K. J., & Tseng, H. T. (2016). Factors influencing Chinese tourists’ intentions to use the Taiwan Medical Travel App. Telematics and Informatics, 33(2), 401-409.
Chen P., Kung R., Huang M., Chen F., Pei L. (2012). Exploring the medical tourism development barriers and participation willingness in Taiwan: an example of mainland tourist, World academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. 6: 8-29.
Creswell, J. W., & Clark, V. L. P. (2017). Designing and conducting mixed methods research- Sage publications.
Fetscherin, M., & Stephano, R. M. (2016). The medical tourism index: Scale development and validation. Tourism Management, 52, 539-556.
Ganguli, S., & Ebrahim, A. H. (2017). A qualitative analysis of Singapore's medical tourism competitiveness. Tourism Management Perspectives, 21, 74-84.
Garcia-Altes, A. (2005). The development of health tourism services. Annals of Tourism Research, 32(1), 262-266.
Harahsheh, S.S. (2002). Curative Tourism In Jordan And Its Potential Development,Thesis for the fulfillment of MA in European Tourism Management (ETM),Bournemouth University, United Kingdom,1-135.
Han, H., & Hyun, S. S. (2015). Customer retention in the medical tourism industry: Impact of quality, satisfaction, trust, and price reasonableness. Tourism Management, 46, 20-29.
Heung, V. C. S., Kucukusta, D., & Song, H. (2010). A conceptual model of medical tourism: implications for future research. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 27(3), 236-251.
Kaur, P. (2016). Entrepreneurshıp In Medıcal Tourısm Industry. International Journal Of Information Movement, 5 (1), 22-25.
Kind, S., & zu Knyphausen-Aufseß, D. (2007). What is “Business Development”?—The Case of Biotechnology. Schmalenbach Business Review, 59(2), 176-199.
Lee, C. (2006). Medical tourism, an innovative opportunity for entrepreneurs. Journal of Asia Entrepreneurship and sustainability, 3(1), 3-5.
Lunt, N., & Carrera, P. (2011). Systematic review of web sites for prospective medical tourists. Tourism Review, 66, 57-67.
Lunt, N., Horsfall, D., & Hanefeld, J. (2016). Medical tourism: A snapshot of evidence on treatment abroad. Maturitas, 88, 37-44.
Mays, R. M., de Leon Siantz, M. L., & Viehweg, S. A. (2002). Assessing cultural competence of policy organizations. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 13(2), 139-144.
Mohamad, W. N. (2016). The Effects of Service Quality, Companion's Satisfaction and Delight on Behavioural Intention in Private Hospitals for Medical Tourism (Doctoral dissertation, Universiti Sains Malaysia).
Mohan, A. V., Ejnavarzala, H., & Lakshmi, C. N. (2012). University Linkages in Technology Clusters of Emerging Economies? Exploratory Case Studies from Cyberjaya, Malaysia-a Greenfield Development and Cyberabad, India? a Brownfield Development. World Technopolis Review, 1(1), 42-55.
Owen, D. (2007). Silicon Valley’s secret ingredient. Manchester Business School, Spring.
Pocock, N. S., & Phua, K. H. (2011). Medical tourism and policy implications for health systems: a conceptual framework from a comparative study of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia. Globalization and health, 7(1), 1-12.
Porter, M. E. (2008). The five competitive forces that shape strategy. Harvard business review, 86(1), 25-40.
Pyke, S., Hartwell, H., Blake, A., & Hemingway, A. (2016). Exploring well-being as a tourism product resource. Tourism Management, 55, 94-105.
Ranjan Debata, B., Sree, K., Patnaik, B., & Sankar Mahapatra, S. (2013). Evaluating medical tourism enablers with interpretive structural modeling. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 20(6), 716-743.
Ricafort, K.M.F. (2011). A Study of Influencing Factors That Lead Medical Tourists to Choose Thailand Hospitals as Medical Tourism Destination (Master Disertation), Webster University, Cha-am, Thailand
Seow, A. N., Choong, Y. O., Moorthy, K., & Chan, L. M. (2017). Intention to visit Malaysia for medical tourism using the antecedents of Theory of Planned Behaviour: A predictive model. International Journal of Tourism Research, 19(3), 383-393.
Smith, P. C., & Forgione, D. (2007). Global outsourcing of healthcare: a medical tourism model. Journal of Information Technology Case and Application Research, 9(3),19-30.
Viladrich, A., & Baron-Faust, R. (2014). Medical tourism in tango paradise: The internet branding of cosmetic surgery in Argentina. Annals of Tourism Research, 45, 116-131.
Wongkit, M., & McKercher, B. (2013). Toward a typology of medical tourists: A case study of Thailand. Tourism Management, 38, 4-12.