The effect of personal financial characteristics on entrepreneurial intentions of students from the Faculty of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 MA, student, faculty of entrepreneurship, university of tehran

2 Department of Entrepreneurship Development, Faculty of Entrepreneurship University of Tehran

3 Department of Business, Faculty of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran


Studies have shown the significant impact of entrepreneurial intention on starting and running a business and the importance of financial issues on the formation of entrepreneurial intention. However, few research has been done on financial issues and their impact on entrepreneurial intention, especially among university students. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to use the theory of planned behavior to investigate the effect of personal financial characteristics such as (financial optimism, perceived access to finance, financial self-efficacy and financial overconfidence) on entrepreneurial intentions of students from Faculty of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran. In terms of purpose, this research is practical, and in terms of nature, it is a quantitative- correlation study. A sample of 294 postgraduate students from the Faculty of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran was selected using the random sampling method. A questionnaire was used for data collection and AMOS24, SPSS21 software was used for data analysis. The results showed that personal financial characteristics had a positive and significant effect on entrepreneurial intention of students. In addition, the results of this study showed that financial optimism and perceived access to finance had a positive and significant effect on students’ entrepreneurial intention, but financial self-efficacy and financial overconfidence were not significantly correlated with students' entrepreneurial intention.


نائیجی، محمدجواد و اسفندیاری، زینب (1394). تأثیر اعتمادبه‌نفس بیش‌ازحد و خوش‌بینی بر تصمیم به شروع فعالیت‌های نوآورانه؛ نقش میانجی ادراک از خطر.‎ توسعهکارآفرینی، 8 (3)، 531-550.
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 50(2), 179-211.
Amatucci, F. M., & Crawley, D. C (2011). Financial self-efficacy among women entrepreneurs. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 3(1), 23-37.
Astebro, T., Herz, H., Nanda, R., & Weber, R. A. (2014). Seeking the roots of entrepreneurship: Insights from behavioral economics. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 28(3), 49-70.
Ayyagari, M., Demirgüç-Kunt, A., & Maksimovic, V (2006). How important are financing constraints? The role of finance in the business environment. The World Bank Economic Review, 22(3), 483-516.
Bagheri, A. and Z. A. L. Pihie (2014). The moderating role of gender in shaping entrepreneurial intentions: Implications for vocational guidance. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 14(3):255–273.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological review, 84(2), 191-215.
Bhandari, G., & Deaves, R (2006). The demographics of overconfidence. The Journal of Behavioral Finance, 7(1), 5-11.
Dawson, C., de Meza, D., Henley, A., & Arabsheibani, G. R (2012). Entrepreneurship: cause or consequence of financial optimism. Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, 23(4), 717-742.
Dawson C, de Meza D, Henley A, Arabsheibani GR (2015). The power of (non) positive thinking: self-employed pessimists earn more than optimists. IZA working paper, (9242).
Dawson, C., & Henley, A. (2013). Over-optimism and entry and exit from self-employment. International Small Business Journal, 31(8), 938-954.
Dawson, C (2017). Financial optimism and entrepreneurial satisfaction. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 11(2), 171-194.
Engelschiøn, A. S. (2014). Does increased access to finance enhance entrepreneurial activity among students? How perceived access to finance affects entrepreneurial intentions (Master's thesis, University of Stavanger, Norway).
Farrell, L., Fry, T. R., & Risse, L (2016). The significance of financial self-efficacy in explaining women’s personal finance behavior. Journal of Economic Psychology, 54, 85-99.
Forbes, D. P (2005). Are some entrepreneurs more overconfident than others?. Journal of business venturing, 20(5), 623-640.
Giacomin, O., Janssen, F., & Shinnar, R. (2015). University Students and their faculty: perceptions of entrepreneurial optimism, overconfidence and entrepreneurial Intentions. Management international/International Management/Gestiòn Internacional, 20(1), 123-134.
Green, C. P., & Heywood, J. S. (2011). Flexible contracts and subjective well‐being. Economic Inquiry, 49(3), 716-729.
Guerra G, Patuelli R (2016). The role of job satisfaction in transitions into self-employment. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 40(3): 543–571.
 Hayward, M. L., Shepherd, D. A., & Griffin, D. (2006). A hubris theory of entrepreneurship. Management Science, 52(2), 160-172.
Karimi, S., Biemans, H. J., Lans, T., Chizari, M., & Mulder, M (2016). The impact of entrepreneurship education: A study of Iranian students' entrepreneurial intentions and opportunity identification. Journal of Small Business Management, 54(1), 187-209.
Kerr, W., & Nanda, R. (2009). Financing Constraints and Entrepreneurship, in Audretsch, David, Oliver Falck, and Stephan Heblich, eds., Handbook on Research on Innovation and Entrepreneurship.
Koellinger, P., Minniti, M., & Schade, C (2005). I think I can, I think I can: Overconfidence and entrepreneurial behavior, Journal of Economic Psychology, 28, 502-527.
Krueger Jr, N. F., Reilly, M. D., & Carsrud, A. L (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of business venturing, 15(5-6), 411-432.
Kruse, P., Wach, D., Costa, S., & Moriano, J. A. (2019). Values Matter, Don’t They? Combining Theory of Planned Behavior and Personal Values as Predictors of Social Entrepreneurial Intention. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 10(1), 55-83.
Kwong, C., Jones-Evans, D., & Thompson, P (2012). Differences in perceptions of access to finance between potential male and female entrepreneurs: Evidence from the UK. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 18(1), 75-97.
Liñán, F., Rodríguez-Cohard, J. C., & Rueda-Cantuche, J. M (2011). Factors affecting entrepreneurial intention levels: a role for education. International entrepreneurship and management Journal, 7(2), 195-218.
Marlow, S., & Patton, D. (2005). All credit to men? Entrepreneurship, finance, and gender. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 29(6), 717-735.
McGee, J. E., Peterson, M., Mueller, S. L., & Sequeira, J. M (2009). Entrepreneurial self‐efficacy: refining the measure. Entrepreneurship theory and Practice, 33(4), 965-988.
Mindra, R., Moya, M., Zuze, L. T., & Kodongo, O (2017). Financial self-efficacy: a determinant of financial inclusion. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 35(3), 338-353.
Moberg, K (2013). An entrepreneurial self-efficacy scale with a neutral wording. Conceptual Richness and Methodological Diversity in Entrepreneurship Research, 67-­94.
 Molaei, R., Reza Zali, M., Hasan Mobaraki, M., & Yadollahi Farsi, J (2014). The impact of entrepreneurial ideas and cognitive style on students entrepreneurial intention. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, 6(2), 140-162.
Moore, D.A., & Healy, P.J (2008). The trouble with overconfidence. Psychological Review, 115(2), 502-517.
Nabi, G., & Liñán, F. (2011). Graduate entrepreneurship in the developing world: intentions, education and development. Education+ training, 53(5), 325-334.
Ozaralli, N., & Rivenburgh, N. K. (2016). Entrepreneurial intention: antecedents to entrepreneurial behavior in the USA and Turkey. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 6(1), 3.
Puri, M., & Robinson, D. T (2007). Optimism and economic choice. Journal of Financial Economics, 86(1), 71-99.
Robinson, A.T., & Marino, L.D (2013). Overconfidence and risk perceptions: do they really matter for venture creation decisions? International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 11(1), 149-168.
Shiri, N., Shinnar, R. S., Mirakzadeh, A. A., & Zarafshani, K (2017). Cultural values and entrepreneurial intentions among agriculture students in Iran. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 13(4), 1157-1179.
Trevelyan, R. (2008). Optimism, overconfidence and entrepreneurial activity. Management Decision, 46(7), 986-1001.
Vodă, A. I., & Florea, N. (2019). Impact of Personality Traits and Entrepreneurship Education on Entrepreneurial Intentions of Business and Engineering Students. Sustainability, 11(4), 1192.
Wickham, P.A (2006). Overconfidence in new start-up success probability judgment. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 12(4), 210-227.
Zhao, H., Seibert, S. E., & Hills, G. E (2005). The mediating role of self-efficacy in the development of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of applied psychology, 90(6), 1265-1272.
Zhao, H., Seibert, S. E., & Lumpkin, G. T (2010). The relationship of personality to entrepreneurial intentions and performance: A meta-analytic review. Journal of management, 36(2), 381-404.