عنوان مقاله [English]
This research studies the role of effectuation strategy on strategic learning by focusing on the role of effectuation strategy. Strategic learning involves the firm's ability to create, collect, and interpret strategic knowledge and act on that knowledge in order to make strategic change. While existing literature introduces strategic learning as the inevitable consequences of an entrepreneurial orientation, there are conflicting results in literature if formal approach or flexible approach of strategy formation has a positive impact on this relationship. The present study focuses on effectuation strategy as a flexible and control-based orientation in developing a strategy and studies the mediating role of effectuation strategy in the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and strategic learning. This study is a applicable research and descriptive/correlation research. The data of this study were collected through distribution of standard questionnaires among the owners and senior managers of 210 knowledge-based firms in the field of information technology that were selected randomly from 444 cases. In order to test the research hypotheses, we use structural equation modeling for quantitative data analysis using Smat PLS 03 software. The results of the data analysis show that in a firm with an entrepreneurial orientation, the adoption of effectual strategies of experimentation and flexibility positively affects strategic learning whereas effectual strategy of pre-commitment negatively affects strategic learning.
داوری، علی؛ رضازاده، آرش. (1392). مدلسازی معادلات ساختاری با نرمافزار PLS.
طالبی، کامبیز؛ سجادی، سید مجتبی؛ رسولیان، پریسا (۱۳۹۵). «شناسایی مختصات تفکر راهبردی کارآفرینانه»، توسعه کارآفرینی، 9(4): ۶۳۳-۶۵۲.
مبینی دهکردی، علی؛ نانکلی، علیرضا؛ جامه بزرگی، محمدجواد (۱۳۹۵)، بررسی تأثیر گرایش کارآفرینانه بر بین المللی سازی شرکتهای موجود در صنعت شیشه و بلور ایران با نقش میانجی گری فرهنگ سازمانی، توسعه کارآفرینی، 9(4):۷۱۱-۷۲۹.
Anderson, B., Covin, J., and Slevin, D. (2009). Understanding the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and strategic learning capability: an empirical investigation. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 3, 218–240.
Arend, R. J., Sarooghi, H., and Burkemper A. (2015). Effectuation as ineffectual? Applying the 3E theory-assessment framework to a proposed new theory of entrepreneurship. Academy of Management Review, 40 (4), 630-651.
Baron, R. M., and Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: concep- tual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6): 1173–1182.
Brinckmann, J., Grichnik, D., and Kapsa, D. (2010). Should entrepreneurs plan or just storm the castle? A meta-analysis on contextual factors impacting the business planning–performance relationship in small firms. Journal of Business Venturing, 25, 24–40.
Cadogan, J. W. (2012). International marketing strategic orientations and business success: Reflections on the path ahead. International Marketing Review, 29(4): 340–348.
Chandler, G. N., DeTienne, D. R., and Mumford, T. V. (2007). Causation and effectuation: Measurement development and validation. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, 27(13), article 3.
Chandler, G. N., DeTienne, D. R., McKelvie A., and Mumford T. V. (2011). Causation and effectuation processes: a validation study. Journal of Business Venturing,26(3): 375–390.
Covin, J. G., and Lumpkin, G. T. (2011). Entrepreneurial orientation theory and research: reflections on a needed construct’, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(5): 855–872.
Covin, J. G., and Slevin, D. P. (1989). Strategic management of small firms in hostile and benign environments. Strategic Man- agement Journal,10(1): 75–87.
Covin, J., Green, K., and Slevin, D. (2006). Strategic process effects on the entrepreneurial orientation-sales growth rate relationship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30, 57–81.
Deligianni, I., Voudouris, I., and Lioukas, S. (2015). Do Effectuation Processes Shape the Relationship Between Product Diversificatio and Performance in New Ventures. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 41, 349–377.
Dew, N., Read, S., Sarasvathy, S. D., and Wiltbank, R. (2009). Effectual versus predictive logics in entre- preneurial decision-making: Differences between experts and novices. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(4), 287–309.
Dooley, R. S., Fryxell, G. E., and Judge, W. Q. (2000). Belaboring the not-so-obvious: Consensus, commitment, and strategy implementation speed and success. Journal of Management, 26(6), 1237–1257.
Fisher, G. (2012). Effectuation, causation, and bricolage: a behavioral comparison of emerging theories in entrepre- neurship research. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice,36(5): 1019–1051.
Hakala, H. (2011). Strategic orientations in management literature: three approaches to understanding the interaction between market, technology, entrepreneurial and learning orientations. International Journal of Management Reviews, 13(2), 199-217.
Huber, G.P. (1991). Organizational learning: The contributing processes and the literatures. Organization Science, 2(1), 88–115.
Hughes, M., Hughes, M., and Morgan, R. (2007). Exploitative learning and entrepreneurial orientation align- ment in emerging young firms: Implications for market and response performance. British Journal of Management, 18, 359–375.
Kreiser, P. (2011). Entrepreneurial orientation and organizational learning: the impact of network range and network closure. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35, 1025–1050.
Li, L., Jiang, F., Pei, Y., and Jiang, N. (2017). Entrepreneurial orientation and strategic alliance success: The contingency role of relational factors. Journal of Business Research, 72, 46–56.
Liu, S. S., Luo, X., and Shi, Y. (2002). Integrating customer orienta- tion, corporate entrepreneurship, and learning orientation in organizations-in-transition: an empirical study. International Journal of Research in Marketing,19(4): 367–382.
Loch, C. H., Solt, M. E., and Bailey, E. M. (2008). Diagnosing unforeseeable uncertainty in a new venture. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 25(1), 28–46.
Lumpkin, G.T., and Dess, G. G. (1996). Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review,21(1): 135–172.
Lumpkin, G.T., and Dess, G. G. (2001). Linking two dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation to firm performance: the moderating role of environment and industry life cycle. Journal of Business Venturing,16(5): 429–451.
Mauer, R., Wuebker, R., Schlueter, J., and Brettel, M. (2017). Prediction and Control: An Agent-Based Simulation of the Entrepreneurial Problem Space (April 11, 2017). Available at SSRN:https://ssrn.com/abstract=2951422 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ ssrn.2951422.
McGrath. R.G. (1999). Falling forward: real options reasoning and entrepreneurial failure. Academy of Management Review,24(1): 13–30.
Minniti, M. and Bygrave, W. (2001). A dynamic model of entrepreneurial learnin. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 25(3), 5–16.
Nicholls-Nixon, C. L., Cooper, A. C., and Woo, C. Y. (2000). Strategic experimentation: Understanding change and performance in new ventures. Journal of Business Venturing, 15, 493–521.
Nunnally, J. C., and Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric Theory. McGraw-Hill. New York.
Mintzberg, H., and Waters, J. A. (1985). Of strategies, deliberate and emergent. Strategic Management Journal,6(3): 257–272.
Pietersen, W. (2002). Reinventing Strategy: Using Strategic Learning to Create and Sustain Breakthrough Performance. John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ.
Slevin, D.P., and Covin, J.G. (1997). Strategy formation patterns, performance, and the significance of context. Journal of Management 23(2): 189–209.
Sirén, C. (2012). Unmasking the capability of strategic learning: A validation study. The Learning Organization, 19(6), 497–517.
Sirén, C., and Kohtamäki, M. (2016). Stretching strategic learning to the limit: The interaction between strategic planning and learning. Journal of Business Research, 69, 653–663.
Sirén, C., Kohtamäki, M., and Kuckertz, A. (2012). Exploration and exploitation strategies, profit performance and the mediating role of strategic learning: escaping the exploitation trap. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 6(1), 18–41.
Sirén, C., Hakala, H., Winsent, J., and Grichnik, D. (2017). Breaking the Routines: Entrepreneurial Orientation, Strategic Learning, Firm Size, and Age. Long Range Planning, 50 (2), 145–167.
Sarasvathy, S. D. (2001). Causation and effectuation: toward a theoretical shift from economic inevitability to entrepre- neurial contingency. Academy of Management Review,26(2): 243–263.
Sarasvathy, S., Kumar, K., York, J. G., and Bhagavatula, S. (2014). An effectual approach to international entrepreneurship: Overlaps, challenges and provocative possibilities. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 38(1), 71–93.
Slater, S. F., and Narver, J. C. (1995). Market orientation and the learning orientation. Journal of Marketing,59(3), 63–74.
Vera, D. and Crossan, M. (2005). Improvisation and innovative performance in teams. Organization Science, 16, 203–224.
Wang, C. (2008). Entrepreneurial orientation, learning orientation, and firm performance. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 32, 635–657.
Werhahn, D., Mauer, R., Flatten, T. C., and Brettel, M. (2015). Validating effectual orientation as strategic direction in the corporate context. European Management Journal, 33(5), 305-313.
Wiltbank, R., Dew, N., Read, S., and Sarasvathy, S.D. (2006). What to do next? The case for non-predictive strategy. Strategic Management Journal,27(10), 981–998.