Cognitive of Entrepreneurs on the Features of the Effective Business Model Using Repertory Grid Technique (Case Study: Entrepreneurs in the Electronic Business in Iran)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Student of Entrepreneurship, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Entrepreneurship, Faculty of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor of Management, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran


Entrepreneurs’ cognition in introducing Construct to express an effective business model is highly complex and different. There are many deficiencies in the literature of entrepreneurship science. The present paper addresses the personal constructs of entrepreneurs in the electronic business in Iran, in order to design an effective business model from their points of view. It is an applied, and the research method was repertory grid technique (RGT). 13 entrepreneurs in this area have been studied as the samples, by considering the saturation point. The data collection instrument was Semi structured interview. Based on the RGT with 5 elements of this grid, 13 individual repertory grids and a total of 346 initial personal constructs were achieved. By analyzing the content of these Constructs, a collective grid consisted of 5 elements and 37 secondary Constructs have been extracted and the validity and reliability of the interviews were approved. As a result, six separate clusters were obtained for the features of the effective business model of the mental structures of entrepreneurs in the field of electronic business. The model can have scientific and practical applications in the field of entrepreneurship.


کریمی‌آ، رحمانی س (1394). "طراحی مدل کسب‌وکار برای چابکی سازمان (مطالعه موردی: شرکت خودروسازی سایپا)، توسعه کارآفرینی، 7(3) : 292-273.
مبینی دهکردی ع، رضوانی م، داوری ع، فروزان ف (1393). "مدل نوآورانه B2C برای شرکت‌های پخش (مطالعه موردی: شرکت گلرنگ پخش)، توسعه کارآفرینی، 7(3): 569-588.
مرتضوی ل (1392). "فهم شناختی مفهوم اثربخشی مدیریتی: کاربرد ساخت‌گرایی شبکه خزانه"، پایان‌نامه دکتری تخصصی. دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد. دانشگاه تربیت مدرس.
Amit, R; Zott, C.( 2010). Business model innovation: creating value in times of change. IESE Business School. University of Navarra.
Bankvall ,L; Dubois ,A; Lind, F. (2016). Conceptualizing business models in industrial networks. Industrial Marketing Management, 60: PP 196-203.
Baron, Robert A; Ward Thomas B. (2014). Expanding entrepreneurial cognition’s toolbox: potential contributions from the field of cognitive science. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 28 (6): PP 553–573.
Chesbrough, H. (2007). Business model innovation: it’s not just about technology anymore, Strategy and Leadership 35(6): PP 12-17.
Demil, B; Lecocq, X. (2010). Business model evolution: in search of dynamic consistency. Long Range Planning, 43(2-3): PP 227–246.
Dmitriev,V; Simmons, G; Truong, Y; Palmer ,M; Schneckenberg, D. (2014). An exploration of business model development in the commercialization of technology innovations. R & D Management. RADMA and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Elfring, T; Hulsink, W. (2003). Networks in entrepreneurship: The case of high-technology firms. Small Business Economics, 21(4): PP 409–422.
Fransella, F.; Bell, R.; Bannister, D. (2004). A Manual For Repertory Grid Technique. England, John Wiley & sons Inc.
Gerard, G; Bock, Adam J. (2010). The Business model in Practice and its Implications for Entrepreneurship Research. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 35(1): PP 83-111.
Johnson, M; Christensen, CM; Kagermann, H.( 2008). Reinventing your business model. Harvard Business Review 86 (12): PP 51–59.
Jankowicz, Devi. (2004). The easy guide to repertory grids. John wily & sons. England.
Joyce ,A; Paquin, R. (2015). The triple layered business model canvas: A tool to design more sustainable business models. Journal of Cleaner Production. 135: PP 1474-1486
Kawaf, F; Tagg,S.( 2017). The construction of online shopping experience: a repertory grid approach. Computers in Human Behavior,72:PP 222-232.
Landau,C; Karna,A; Sailer, M.(2016). Business model adaptation for emerging markets: a case study of a German automobile manufacturer in India.R&D Management. 46(3):PP 480-503.
Lim Dominic, S. K; Morse, Eric A; Mitchell Ronald ,K; Seawright Kristie ,K. (2010). Institutional Environment and Entrepreneurial Cognitions: A Comparative Business Systems Perspective. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(3): PP 491-516.
Mahadevan, B. (2000). Business models for Internet-based e-commerce: An anatomy. California Management Review, 42 (4): PP 55–69.
Malmström, Malin; Johansson, Jeaneth; Wincent; Joakim. (2014). Cognitive Constructions of Low Profit and High Profit Business Models: A Repertory Grid Study of Serial Entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 39(5): PP 1083–1109.
Mitchell; Busenitz;Bird; Gaglio; McMullen; Morse; Smith. (2007). The Central Question in Entrepreneurial Cognition Research. 31(1): PP 1-27.
Morris; Michael; Schindehutte; Minet;Allen; Jeffrey. (2005). The entrepreneur’s business model: toward a unified perspective. Journal of Business Research. 58: PP726– 735.
Nambisan, S.(2016).Digital Entrepreneurship:Toward a Digital Technology Perspective of Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 41 (6): PP 1025-1055.
Osterwalder, Alexander. (2004). The Business Model Ontology A Proposition In A Design Science Approch. These du grade de Docteur en Informatique de Gestion.
Partanen, J; Chetty Sylvie ,K; Rajala, A. (2011). Innovation Types and Network relationships . Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 38(5): PP 1042-2587.
Solis, Humberto B; Masanell Ramon, C; Grifell, E; Tatje. (2014). Business Model Evaluation: Quantyging Wallmarts Sources Of Advantage. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 9(1): PP 12-33.
Taran Y, Boer H, Lindgren P. (2015). A business model innovation typology. Decision Sciences Institute, 46( 2): pp 31-331.
Tidd, J; Bessant, J. (2009). Managing innovation: Integrating technological, market and organizational change. Chichester Wiley,5th Edition.
Teece, D. J. (2010). Business model, business strategy and innovation. Long Range Planning, 43 (2–3): PP 172–194.
Van de Kerkhof, M.; Cuppen, E.; Hisschemoller, M. (2009). The repertory grid to unfold conflictingpositions: The case of a stakeholder dialogue on prospects for hydrogen. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 76(3):PP 422-432.
Weiweia, Li; yue, Dai. (2015). Research on Value Evaluation of E-commerce Business Model. Procedia Computer Science, 60:PP 1328- 1336.
Wirtz, Bernd W; Pistoia, Adriano; Ullrich,Sebastian; Gottel, Vincent. (2016). Business Models: Origin, Development and Future Research Perspectives. Long Range Planning. 49(1): PP 36-54.
Zahra, S; Nambisan, S. (2011). Entrepreneurship in global innovation ecosystems. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 2011 (1): PP 4–17.
Zott, Christoph; Amit, Raphael; Massa, Lorenzo. (2011). The Business Model: recent developments and future research. Journal of Management. 37 (4): PP 1019–1042.