Cross validation of Students' Entrepreneurial Passion: A Psychological Inquiry to the Evolution of Entrepreneurship Education in Agricultural Higher Education

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Prof., Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Development, University of Tehran., Tehran, Iran

2 M.Sc. in Agricultural Education, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Development, University of Tehran., Tehran, Iran

3 Ph.D. Student in Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Development, University of Tehran., Tehran, Iran


Entrepreneurial passion has been considered as a heart of innovative idea conduction. The present empirical research aimed to investigate factors of students' entrepreneurial passion. In this regard analysis of covariance matrix causal relationship was undertaken. The statistical population comprised of senior and junior undergraduate students as well as graduate students of the University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Tehran University. 205 students were selected using the Daniel formula through quota sampling method. Research instrument was a questionnaire whose validity and reliability were reviewed and approved. A dominant statistical method was structural equation modeling to study the second-order factor analysis. The empirical results showed that in measurement of EP, EP founding, EP inventing and EP developing respectively have significant effect.


  1. آراستی،‌ ز.، حیدری، ه. و مبارکی،‌ م. ح. (1393). ارزیابی اثر بخشی روش آموزش کارآفرینی سخنران مهمان (مورد مطالعه: دانشجویان دانشکدۀ کارآفرینی دانشگاه تهران). فصلنامۀ توسعۀ کارآفرینی. شمارۀ 7(3). 389-406.
  2. باقردصاد،‌ و. زالی، م. ر.، رضوی،‌ س. م. و سعیدبنادکی،‌ س. (1392). تأثیر آموزش کارآفرینی بر قصد کارآفرینی دانشجویان رشته‌های فنی و حرفه‌ای. فصلنامۀ توسعۀ کارآفرینی. شمارۀ 6(4). 36-21.
  3. Baum, J. and Locke, E. (2004). The relationship of entrepreneurial traits, skill and motivation to subsequent venture growth. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(4): 587–598.
  4. Cardon, M. S. Gregoire, D. A. Stevens, C. E. and Patel, P. C. (2013). Measuring entrepreneurial passion: Conceptual foundations and scale validation. Journal of Business Venturing: 28 (1); 373–396.
  5. Cardon, M. S., Wincent, J. Singh, J. and Drnovsek, M. (2009). The nature and experience of entrepreneurial passion. Academy of Management Review. 34(3): 511–532.
  6. Chen, X., Yao, X. and Kotha, S. (2009). Entrepreneur passion and preparedness in business plan presentations: A persuasion analysis of venture capitalists’ funding decisions. Academy of Management Journal. 52(1): 199–214.
  7. Dickson, P.H., Solomon, G.T., & Weaver, K.M. (2008). Entrepreneurial selection and success: Does education matter? Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 15(2): 239–258.
  8. Fitzsimmons, J. R. and Douglas, E. J. (2011). Interaction between feasibility and desirability in the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing 26(4): 431–440.
  9. Fauchart, E., Gruber, M., 2011. Darwinians, communitarians and missionaries: the role of founder identity in entrepreneurship. Academy of Management Journal.54, 935–957.
  10. Ho V, Wong S and Lee C (2011) A tale of passion: Linking job passion and cognitive engagement to employee work performance. Journal of Management Studies. 48(1): 26–41.
  11. Hoang, H., Gimeno, J., (2010). Becoming a founder: how founder role identity affects entrepreneurial transitions and persistence in founding. Journal of Business Venturing 25, 41–53.
  12. Joensuu, S., Viljamaa, A., Varamaki, E. and Tornikoski, E. (2013). Development of entrepreneurial intention in higher education and the effect of gender. Journal of Education and Training. 55(8/9): 781-803.
  13. Karlsson, T. and Moberg, K. (2013). Improving perceived entrepreneurial abilities through education: Exploratory testing of an entrepreneurial self-efficacy scale in a pre-post setting. The International Journal of Management Education, 11 (1): 1–11.
  14. Kautonen, T. Luoto, S. and Tornikoski, E. T. (2010) Influence of work history on entrepreneurial intentions in ‘prime age’ and ‘third age’: A preliminary study. International Small Business Journal. 28(6): 583–601.
  15. Linan, F. Rodriguez-Cohard, J.C. & Rueda-Cantuche, J.M. (2010). Factors affecting entrepreneurial intention levels: A role for education. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 7(2): 195–218.
  16. Luthje, C. Franke, N., 2002. Fostering entrepreneurship through university education and training: lessons from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. EURAM Stockholme 2nd Annual Conference, Stockholme, Sweden.
  17. Oconnor, A. (2013). A conceptual framework for entrepreneurship education policy: Meeting government and economic purposes. Journal of Business Venturing, 28 (1): 546–563.
  18. Oosterbek, H., van Praag, M. and Ijsselstein, A. (2010). The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurship skills and motivation”, European Economic Review. 54(3): 442-454.
  19. Pihkala, J. and Miettinen, A. (2004). Exploring changes in entrepreneurial intentions – a follow-up study in two polytechnics. Proceedings of International Entrepreneurship Conference, Naples, July 5-7.
  20. Podsakoff, P.M., MacKenzie, S.B., Lee, J.Y. And Podsakoff, N.P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5): 879-903.
  21. Sundararajan, M., Peters, L., 2007. Role of emotions in the entrepreneur's opportunity recognition process. Paper Presented at the Academy of Management Conference. Philadelphia, PA.
  22. Ucbasaran, D., Alsos, G., Westhead, P., Wright, M., 2008. Habitual entrepreneurs. Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship Research. 4, 1–93.
  23. Verheul, I., Wennekers, S., Audretsch, D., Thurik, R. (2001). An eclectic theory of entrepreneurship. Discussion Paper TI2001-030/3. Tinbergen Institute, Amsterdam. (retrieved:
  24. Walter, S., Parboteeah, K. and Walter, A. (2013). University departments and self-employment intentions of business students: a cross-level analysis”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 37(2): 175-200.
  25. Wang, Y. & Verzat, C. (2011). Generalist or specific studies for engineering entrepreneurs? Comparison of French engineering students’ trajectories in two different curricula. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development: 18(2), 366–383.